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The Synergistic Effects of Insecticides with a Fungicide on Apis mellifera in California’s Almond Plantations Público Deposited

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is the driving cause behind the global decline of Apis mellifera (honey bee) populations that have become indispensable for modern, plantation-like agricultural operations. However, the very same type of large-scale farming heavily relies on multiple applications of pesticides. Many agrochemicals, evaluated singly, are considered safe for pollinators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) despite a clear lack of understanding of their combined effects. Here, the synergistic effects of insecticides such as methoxyfenozide, pyrethrin, and permethrin, as well as fungicides like iprodione are examined as a possible cause of CCD. Agrochemicals, on the other hand, find their way to a wide majority of honey bee food sources. Although the EPA has done research on individual chemicals, the data of the synergistic effects of certain combinations of chemicals is lacking. To better understand the effects of modern agricultural practices on honey bee cognitive function, proboscis extension reflex (PER) is used as a measure of chemical toxicity introduced by insecticides and fungicides. The goal of this study is to test the synergistic effects on the honey bee that may prevent remembrance of key survival mechanisms such as the location of the hive and food sources.

Author DOI Palavra-chave Date created Type of Work Source
  • 4502910.4079_2578-9201.1(2023).04
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