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The Torsion of a Finite Quasigroup Quandle is Annihilated by its Order Open Access

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We prove that if Q is a finite quasigroup quandle, then |Q| annihilates the torsion of its homology. It is a classical result in reduced homology of finite groups that the order of a group annihilates its homology. From the very beginning of the rack homology (between 1990 and 1995) the analogous result was suspected. The first general results in this direction were obtained independently about 2001 by R. A. Litherland and S. Nelson, and P. Etingof and M. Grana. In Litherland-Nelson paper it is proven that if (Q;*) is a finite homogeneous rack (this includes quasigroup racks) then the torsion of homology is annihilated by |Q|^n. In Etingof-Grana paper it is proven that if (X;A) is a finite rack and N=|G^0_Q| is the order of a group of inner automorphisms of Q, then only primes which can appear in the torsion of homology are those dividing N (the case of connected Alexander quandles was proven before by T. Mochizuki). The result of Litherland-Nelson is generalized by Niebrzydowski and Przytycki and in particular, they prove that the torsion part of the homology of the dihedral quandle R_3 is annihilated by 3. In Niebrzydowski-Przytycki paper it is conjectured that for a finite quasigroup quandle, torsion of its homology is annihilated by the order of the quandle. The conjecture is proved by T. Nosaka for finite Alexander quasigroup quandles. In this paper we prove the conjecture in full generality.

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