High housing costs are mostly regional, not national, problem. U.S. does not have a single, unified housing market. Since 2012, U.S. housing prices have risen by 5.3% per year. This outpaces household income growth of 4% annually (Bhutta et al 2017). But large regional variation in housing price growth (Table 1). Factors that drive housing supply and demand also vary across cities and regions. Demand: local population, employment and income growth. Supply: geographic land constraints, historical density and development patterns. Zoning and related land use regulations are mostly adopted by local and state governments.