Gender and Culture Influences on Leadership Perceptions Open Access
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This study examines how demographic characteristics of culture and gender contribute, in part, to the perceptions of leadership in multi-national organizations. Although gender and culture tend to be salient individual characteristics, few studies have investigated the role of gender in cross-cultural contexts within a leadership perception's framework. The current study examined main effects of gender and the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and uncertainty avoidance, as well as interaction patterns of these variables. The study used archival data from a multi-national organization, employing a large sample of respondents. Measurement equivalence across cultures was established. The findings provided support for the influence of power distance, masculinity-femininity, and uncertainty avoidance on leadership perceptions, and partial support for the impact of individualism-collectivism. Further, the study showed that females from high power distance, collectivistic, and feminine cultures perceived their leaders more favorably than females from low power distance, individualistic, or masculine cultures as well as males across all cultures. Practical and statistical significance of the findings, as well as implications for leadership perceptions in international contexts, are discussed.