Are Latin American Economies and Foreign Policies Diversifying? The Impact of Rising China and U.S. Reactions Open Access
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What happens to states when a new power rises? The literature has provided several answers, but most of the material concentrates on the behavior or actions of the current hegemon, not of peripheral states. This study focuses on the narrower question of what happens to such peripheral players, and what policy options they have. This dissertation addresses why and how the emergence of China is impacting the Western Hemisphere, the area of traditional U.S. hegemony, during the period 2000-2010. The answer will build on accounts of the historical background of key players in the region and will theorize about the concept of diversification. Methodologically, I will analyze four cases pertaining to China's relation with the following countries: Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Venezuela. Regarding the United States, the inquiry also focuses on how China's rise has demanded U.S. foreign policy changes in an area long considered its "backyard". This dissertation aspires to contribute to conceptual development and knowledge accumulation about Latin America's foreign policies, particularly about diversification, and specifically within the context of rising China and United States responses. Finally, it seeks to provide new elements for potential generalizations about foreign policies of peripheral states towards rising powers.