Invigorated and Checked-In or Depleted and Checked-Out? A Person-Centric Examination of the Effects of Voice on Employee Burnout and Turnover Intention Open Access
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Voice is a form of extra-role behavior where employees move beyond role expectations to voluntarily communicate information about work-related issues, challenges, and opportunities upward to organizational representatives who can act on the information, with the aim of improving outcomes for individuals, groups, or the organization. However, there are two competing theoretical perspectives about how voice affects individual-level outcomes. One (i.e., invigorated perspective) suggests voice is beneficial for employees, while the other (i.e., depleted perspective) suggests the opposite. In this study I adopt a person-centric view and take into account particular contextual factors to propose and empirically examine contingent predictions regarding burnout and turnover intention, as suggested by the two perspectives. I test my hypotheses using data collected at two time periods (approximately beginning and end of school year) from 1,295 elementary school teachers from 75 schools from across the United States (U.S.). Overall results supported the invigorated perspective such that employees who engage in voice and have higher perceptions of leader-member exchange and organizational commitment are less likely to experience burnout and turnover intention, respectively. These results bring clarity to literature and show that in addition to contributing to the success of the organization, voice can also help employees avoid negative outcomes themselves.