Multifunctional Optoelectronic Platform for Optophysiology and Electrophysiology Open Access
Optogenetics allows researchers to stimulate and monitor cell-specific activity using light. It facilitated enormous progress in our understanding of the brain and the heart in the past several years and rapid advances in micro-and nanofabrication technology has resulted in numerous devices that aid researchers in better understanding the potential of optogenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The development of advanced implantable multifunctional device platforms that integrate both optical and electrical biointerfacing capabilities will permit the design of complex in vivo physiological studies using optogenetics that are otherwise not possible with conventional experimental setups using separated external optical and electrical equipment.In this dissertation, we introduce a new class of biocompatible and flexible bioelectronics that integrates transparent electrodes with optical stimulation and recording components for co-localized biointerfacing. First, we developed an implantable photometer using commercial off-the-shelf microscale optoelectronic components that can optically record cellular activity in the brain of freely moving mice. Building upon this fabrication strategy, we then developed a single-site multifunctional device that integrates a transparent Au nanogrid electrode directly above a microscale inorganic light-emitting diode for co-localized optical stimulation and electrical recording of intact transgenic mouse hearts ex vivo. Next, we scaled up this multifunctional device and demonstrated its utility in simultaneous electrical stimulation/electrical mapping and multi-site optical stimulation/electrical mapping of intact mouse hearts in both healthy and diseased states ex vivo and in vivo. Lastly, we have developed and systematically characterized a photometer with an integrated transparent Au nanogrid electrode overhead that permits simultaneous optical recording and electrical biointerfacing. Overall, this technology will provide the scientific community with a platform that permits in depth studies using optogenetics and has broad applications in future in vivo studies in both the brain and the heart.
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