Implementation and Validation of an Anisotropic Plasticity Model for Clay and a Two-Scale Micropolar Constitutive Model for Sand Open Access
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As a multi-phase material, soil exhibits highly nonlinear, anisotropic, and inelastic behavior. While it may be impractical for one constitutive model to address all features of the soil behavior, one can identify the essential aspects of the soil's stress-strain-strength response for a particular class of problems and develop a suitable constitutive model that captures those aspects. Here, attention is given to two important features of the soil stress-strain-strength behavior: anisotropy and post-failure response. An anisotropic soil plasticity model is implemented to investigate the significance of initial and induced anisotropy on the response of geo-structures founded on cohesive soils. The model is shown to produce realistic responses for a variety of over-consolidation ratios. Moreover, the performance of the model is assessed in a boundary value problem in which a cohesive soil is subjected to the weight of a newly constructed soil embankment. Significance of incorporating anisotropy is clearly demonstrated by comparing the results of the simulation using the model with those obtained by using an isotropic plasticity model. To investigate post-failure response of soils, the issue of strain localization in geo-structures is considered. Post-failure analysis of geo-structures using numerical techniques such as mesh-based or mesh-free methods is often faced with convergence issues which may, at times, lead to incorrect failure mechanisms. This is due to the fact that majority of existing constitutive models are formulated within the framework of classical continuum mechanics that leads to ill-posed governing equations at the onset of localization. To overcome this challenge, a critical state two-surface plasticity model is extended to incorporate the micro-structural mechanisms that become significant within the shear band. The extended model is implemented to study the strain localization of granular soils in drained and undrained conditions. It is demonstrated that the extended model is capable of capturing salient features of soil behavior in pre- and post-failure regimes. The effects of soil particle size, initial density and confining pressure on the thickness and orientation of shear band are investigated and compared with the observed behavior of soils.