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Perceptions on India and Japan’s Membership in the Quadrilateral: Realist Concerns or Symbolism? Open Access

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This paper analyzes the perceptions of subject experts in the United States and Australia on whether realist concerns explain the need of India and Japan to be part the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad). It explores how well this informal alliance is said to meet the security needs of these powers and whether alternative non-realist reasons may explain their membership in the Quad. Based on qualitative analyses, this research concludes that perceptions point to realist security needs stemming from the rise of China to have influenced India and Japan to be part of the Quad. The research notes that there is largely a consensus among experts on the offensive nature of Chinese ambitions for the Indo-Pacific. However, India and Japan’s commitment to the Quad remains reactive based on fluctuating Chinese behavior.

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