Examining the Reciprocal Relationship between Parental Negativity and Negative Emotionality during Adolescence: A Biometric Cross-Lagged Model Open Access
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Adolescence represents a key developmental period when the interplay between temperament and parenting may be most apparent and has implications for adolescents' adjustment. The current study utilized a cross-lagged, biometric model to explore the reciprocal relationship between Adolescent Negative Emotionality and Parental Negativity across adolescence. Analyses examined stability and change in Adolescents' Negative Emotionality and Parental Negativity over a three year period, as well as the impact of each construct on each other over time. To gain further understanding of the mechanisms that underlie links between temperament and parenting, genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change in each construct were also examined. This study focused on a subset of the families within the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (NEAD) project (N=395) who were assessed twice, 3 years apart. This sample included 5 sibling pair types that resided in nondivorced or stepfamilies: Monozygotic (N=63) and Dizygotic (N=75) twin pairs, and Full Sibling (N=153), Half Sibling (N=60 pairs), and Unrelated Sibling (N=44) pairs. Overall findings for mothers and fathers indicated that: (1) there is moderate stability in Negative Emotionality and Parental Negativity over time, (2) Negative Emotionality and Parental Negativity influence each other over time; and (3) genetic and environmental factors account for variance in Negative Emotionality and Parental Negativity within each age examined, and contribute to stability and change. These findings support the presence of bidirectional effects between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Negative Emotionality, and underscore the importance of the parent-child relationship during adolescence.