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Experiences of Homonegativity, Internalized Homonegativity, Self-Efficacy to Practice Safe Sex, and Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Open Access

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Abstract of DissertationExperiences of Homonegativity, Internalized Homonegativity, Self-Efficacy to Practice Safe Sex, and Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)Using an ecological perspective, this dissertation examined experiences of homonegativity in different settings and its influence on internalized homonegativity. It also examined whether there were significant paths between internalized homonegativity and experiences of homonegativity and self-efficacy to practice safe sex. In addition, it examined paths between self-efficacy to practice safe sex and internalized homonegativity and unprotected anal intercourse at 3 month and last sexual encounters. Men who have sex with men (N = 136) completed an on-line survey designed to address these questions. A measure of experiences of homonegativity was adapted to include four specific settings: church, family, neighborhood, and friends. Participants reported experiences of homonegativity highest from church and the lowest from friends. Experiences of homonegativity from family, friends, and neighborhood were all significantly positively associated with internalized homonegativity. Results indicated significant paths between internalized homonegativity and experiences of homonegativity in different settings (i.e., friends, family, and neighborhood) and self-efficacy to practice safe sex. Significant paths between self-efficacy to practice safe sex and internalized homonegativity and unprotected anal intercourse at last sexual encounter and within the last three months were also found. Implications for future research and clinicians working with individuals who experience homonegativity are discussed.

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