Novel Materials Based On-chip Electro-optic Modulation and Photodetection Open Access
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Advances in optoelectronics are often led by discovery and development of materials featuring unique properties. Recently, ultra-thin film (0.5 to 20 nm) materials have demonstrated great potential for applications in integrated photonics for on-chip communication. However, due to the limitation of the material dimension, such thin-film materials usually have a weak light-matter interaction when integrated with photonics integrated circuit (PIC), thus leading to limited device performance. In this dissertation, I discuss a list of methods on integrating such thin-film materials to both photonic and plasmonic platform, achieving complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible on-chip devices with enhanced light-matter interaction. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is one of the most used transparent conductive oxide in solar panel and touch sensor industry. Beyond its current industrial use, it has shown for thin-film ITO (~10 nm), when properly gated, a strong electro-optic tunability in near-infrared regime could be achieved. Using this unique property of ITO, a novel coupling enhanced modulator that utilizes Kramers-Kronig relation to boost its electro-optical response was designed and demonstrated. Also, Graphene as an atomic thin layer material, has demonstrated extraordinary electro-optic properties and is therefore a promising candidate for photonic devices. Hybrid plasmonic approach is used to integrate graphene onto silicon photonic platform, resulting in efficient and footprint compact on-chip optoelectronics applications.