Implementation of Efficient Light Control Platforms in Integrated Photonics: InP Photonics Crystal Arrays, Modetector & Grating Couplers Open Access
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As the Nano-fabrication process technology is approaching 7nm, the electronic device in the modern microsystems start to face the limitations driven by fundamental physical challenges such as quantum tunneling and leakage. Moreover, the increasingly complicated processes such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and double patterning technology are implemented which currently used as the main possible solution to relieve physical constrains, are continually driving up manufacturing costs. Rather than introducing even complicated processes, new options, such as photonics and plasmonic have been investigated in the past few decades to improve the cost-efficiency of microsystems. However, Photonics, although could be used in long-haul communication, is still suffering from multiple limitations, such as the diffraction limitation, larger on-chip footprint and relatively low light-matter interaction (LMI), which all limited the photonics in term of on-chip communication and further applications. Plasmonic, on the other hand, which could shrink the light mode into sub-wavelength scale because of the nm-scale effective wavelength of the plasma oscillations with orders of magnitude higher LMIs, suffers from only a few tens of microns of propagation distance due to its intrinsic high Ohmic loss. This thesis paper fathoms the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of light modulation on-chip by combining the Photonics and Plasmonic. Several hybrid photonic-plasmonics devices have been proposed and analyzed in this thesis. This thesis also introduces the fabrication process of devices integrated with waveguides and grating couplers. In addition, a surface-normal 2D slow-light PC waveguide array has been demonstrated which have the potential to fulfill the light modulation in free space.