An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Classroom Practices and Mathematics Motivation from Student and Teacher Perspectives Open Access
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This study evaluated the relationships between classroom practices and mathematics motivation. The evaluation was given in a specific context, namely eighth grade in U.S. middle schools. Using quantitative methods, the study adopted data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 and compared classroom practices from the perspectives of both the teacher and student. The evaluation considered the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the influence of the characteristics of student achievement level and gender and parental education.In brief, it was found that 1) intrinsic and extrinsic motivations were significantly related to each other, and the effect size of the relationship was large; 2) classroom practices from the teacher perspective were significantly related to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, but the effect sizes of both relationships were quite small; and 3) classroom practices from the student perspective were significantly related to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and both effect sizes were about medium.By evaluating the full range of classroom practices, academic motivation, and their relationships through a large-scale dataset, this study was able to answer some questions that would not have been possible to answer qualitatively. Before this study, little was known about the practice-motivation relationship based on studies with a large enough sample size to apply their findings to policymaking. This study provided quantitative evidence suggesting the use of classroom practices from the student perspective to evaluate the relationships and showed that the relationships were rather stable among different student characteristics. It also demonstrated that intrinsic motivation and real-life-oriented extrinsic motivation were strongly related but still substantially different. How the findings can be connected to past research was discussed, as well as potential implications for policymakers and practitioners. Finally, recommendations were given for future research, which covered data collection, alternative quantitative methods, and research topics.