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A History of the Revolutionary Action Movement Open Access

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The Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) was an organization during the 1960’s which adhered to a Pan-African revolutionary nationalist philosophy that blended Mao’s critique of Marxism, the discipline and spiritual nature of the Nation of Islam, W.E.B. Du Bois’ scholarship, the Black Nationalism of Marcus Garvey, and the grassroots approach of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. RAM envisioned a World Black Revolution that would combat imperialism through the solidarity of Third World Revolutionaries. The movement was heavily influenced by Malcolm X and Robert F. Williams, especially regarding armed self-defense. Williams served as the international chairman and put forth a strategy of urban guerrilla tactics. Muhammad Ahmad (Max Stanford) was a central figure in RAM’s development. The movement eventually was dissolved due to the FBI’s Counterintelligence Program, but contributed to the theoretical development of the concept of Black Power.

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