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  1. Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file) [Download]

    Title: Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file)
    Author: Sigelman, Carol
    Description: Supplementary materials in the attached .zip file for the article submitted to Journal of Child and Family Studies. Sigelman, C. K. (2018, in press): "Children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS causality, prevention, and social interaction." Article abstract: Guided by both a Piagetian and a naïve theories perspective on disease concepts, this study examined children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS, with special attention to its development, coherence, and sociocultural correlates. It examined age differences among Mexican-American and Euro-American children aged 8 to 13 (N = 158) in both Piagetian level of causal understanding (independent of correctness) and the causal knowledge central to an intuitive theory of AIDS (knowledge of risk behaviors and of the viral disease agent). It explored theoretical coherence in terms of implications of causal understanding and causal knowledge for knowledge of how to prevent AIDS and willingness to interact with people who have it. As predicted, scores on all measures increased significantly with age, and causal knowledge of risk factors exceeded knowledge of corresponding prevention rules. In multiple regression analyses, causal knowledge of both risk factors and the viral disease agent predicted knowledge of prevention and willingness to interact, even with age and other measures controlled. Prevention knowledge predicted willingness to interact even better, whereas the Piagetian measure of casual understanding did not predict either prevention knowledge or willingness to interact. Ethnic group differences were not evident but parent education was related to greater viral knowledge and willingness to interact. The results suggest a good deal of coherence in children’s thinking about this disease while also suggesting the desirability of making explicit the implications of critical causal information about an unfamiliar disease for preventing the disease without stigmatizing those who have it.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Disease prevention, Causality, Child development, Supplementary materials
    Date Uploaded: 06/08/2018
  2. Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design [Download]

    Title: Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design
    Author: Bae, Jung Min
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Saiboat flooding control valve
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  3. Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse [Download]

    Title: Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse
    Author: Adams, Thomas
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Tidal irrigation system in greenhouse
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  4. Strāta, Ground Robot [Download]

    Title: Strāta, Ground Robot
    Author: Barnes, Scott
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Ground robot
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  5. Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices [Download]

    Title: Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices
    Author: George-Warren, Aden
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Shaft alignment tool, Vibration analysis tool
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  6. Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator [Download]

    Title: Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator
    Author: Patron, Aaron
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Portable solar generator, Origami design
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  7. SAE Baja Front Suspension [Download]

    Title: SAE Baja Front Suspension
    Author: Bracco, Jason
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Mini-Baja competition
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  8. Wood Stove Thermal Modeling [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Thermal Modeling
    Author: Arimoto, Brent
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermal modeling
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  9. Wind Turbine Experimental Setup [Download]

    Title: Wind Turbine Experimental Setup
    Author: Hummels, Raymond
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wind turbine testing
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  10. Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental” [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental”
    Author: Camero, Alexus
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermoelectric energy generation
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  11. Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities [Download]

    Title: Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities
    Author: DeMasi, Abigail
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Satellite reaction wheel
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  12. 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report [Download]

    Title: 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report
    Author: Bacskai, Audrey
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Aircraft design build fly
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  13. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  14. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  15. Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018 [Download]

    Title: Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018
    Author: Kosowski, Tara (Editor-in-Chief)
    Description: Wooden Teeth is an annual publication and is open to all members of The George Washington University community. Undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, alumni, and staff are encouraged to submit their poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and art. This is the Spring 2018 edition.
    Keywords: GW student publication, GW literary magazine , Poetry, Fiction, Non-fiction, Art
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  16. Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque [Download]

    Title: Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque
    Author: Throckmorton, Frances Estelle
    Description: The handwritten 1894 thesis by Frances Estelle Throckmorton, one of the members of the Columbian College "Original 13." The term "Original 13" refers to the first cohort of 13 women admitted to the Columbian College in 1889. Throckmorton received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Columbian College in 1893 and a Master of Arts in 1894, for which she submitted this thesis about the life and works of Cicero. This thesis is handwritten entirely in Latin.
    Keywords: Manuscript , Handwritten thesis, Columbian College, Original 13 , Masters thesis, Cicero , Cicero, Marcus Tullius
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  17. Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability [Download]

    Title: Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability for the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs United States Senate on March 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  18. Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations [Download]

    Title: Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Daniel R. Pérez, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations Before the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Committee United States Senate on March 29, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory studies, Public policy, Regulatory policy
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  19. Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws [Download]

    Title: Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Jacob Yarborough, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws Before the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission on August 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  20. The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy [Download]

    Title: The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy before the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Task Force on Executive Overreach on May 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  21. An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Pierce, Richard J. Jr.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center Hearing, on an Introduction to a Regulatory Budget before the House Committee on the Budget July 7, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  22. Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives [Download]

    Title: Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives before the United States Senate June 10, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  23. Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard [Download]

    Title: Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement by Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard before the Environment and Public Works Committee on February 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  24. A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals [Download]

    Title: A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals before the United States Senate Homeland Security & Government Affairs Committee on September 16, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  25. Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget before the United States Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on June 23, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  26. Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center. Hearing on Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management Roundtable Discussion, June 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  27. Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Response to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee's Letter Requesting Input on its Regulatory Improvement Effort on May 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  28. Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize [Download]

    Title: Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize
    Author: Okafor, Chinemelu
    Description: Unions advocate for fair employee pay standards and workplace protection: unions can be regarded as a symptom of disequilibrium between the wages workers seek and the wage offered by an employer. Unions serve as powerful institutions for the alleviation of discriminatory workplace practices through the creation of a collective voice for disenfranchised communities. Although union membership offers advantages for workers from marginalized occupational and demographic communities, in the past years overall union membership as a percentage of the U.S. workforce has declined; namely, private sector union membership has declined significantly over time, while public sector union density has remained fairly constant (BLS, 2016). This analysis explores the interrelation between demographic and occupational characteristics and private sector union membership. Private sector union organizers are concerned with developing targeting strategies to reduce attrition rates and recoup membership losses. This paper acknowledges the positive contribution that unions provide to marginalized individuals; thus, the idea supporting this analysis is that considering member profiles and their role in an individual’s decision to unionize might benefit union organizers’ recruitment efforts. Positive, significant results would suggest union organizers target their recruitment efforts toward individuals that have a greater propensity to unionize given demographic and occupational profiles. Using 2013-2016 data taken from the Current Population Survey (CPS), this study investigates the marginal propensity to join a private sector union given personal profile characteristics. Time trends between demographic and occupational characteristic (levels) are first plotted using historical CPS data during the period 2000-2016. The historical trends reveal that union membership levels are highest for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry. To empirically test that these trends exist at the margin, a multidimensional logistic regression is employed to underscore the individual propensity to join (or not join) a private sector union. Demographic measures include race, sex, and age and are included first as explanatory variables, and occupational characteristics- occupation/industry- are added subsequently. Based on the observed CPS data trends, I hypothesize that the results of this analysis will be consistent with the historical level results of the data and confirm that there exists a significant, positive propensity to unionize for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Union memberships, Discrimination, Demographics, Union, Wages, U.S. workforce
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  29. Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology [Download]

    Title: Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology
    Author: Singh, Sheel V.
    Description: Research in molecular ecology and conservation genetics often entails genotyping single nucleotide variants (SNVs). High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA) is a simple and economical method for detecting DNA variants by characterizing the sequence-specific melting behavior of short PCR products. To-date HRMA use has largely focused on medical screenings, but this method has numerous potential applications in primatological genetics. We developed and tested (via Sanger sequencing) several protocols demonstrating the convenience and flexibility of HRMA in primatology. First, we assessed the ability of HRMA to discern color vision status in lemurs (n=87 of 9 species) via X-linked opsin genotypes. Differences in melting curves (temperature and shape) allowed us to reliably identify trichromatic and dichromatic individuals with high accuracy. Second, we targeted SNVs commonly associated with autism and/or behavioral tendencies (oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR) in humans (n=60) and were able to accurately genotype individuals based on melting curves. Third, we used HRMA for rapid species identification using a segment of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1). Results indicate that sympatric primate species, including some lemurs and apes, can be accurately identified using HRMA. Finally, we have used HRMA for health screenings of interleukin-4 (IL4) SNVs that are associated with nematode infection loads in Eulemur rufifrons. Our results demonstrate that HRMA is a multipurpose and robust method for genotyping simple functional and neutral genetic variants.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Primatology, Genetics, High-Resolution Melt Analysis
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  30. Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency [Download]

    Title: Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency
    Author: Spurr, Liam
    Description: Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants, and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the purity-adjusted allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features, and linked it with changes in the total gene expression. We documented higher allele frequency of somatic variants in cancer-implicated genes (Cancer Gene Census, CGC). Furthermore, somatic alleles bearing premature terminating variants (PTVs), when positioned in CGC genes, appeared to be less frequently degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, indicating possible favoring of truncated proteins by the tumor transcriptome. Among the genes with multiple PTVs with high allele frequency were key cancer genes including ARID1, TP53 and NSD1. Altogether, our analysis suggests that high allele frequency of tumor somatic variants can indicate driving functionality, and can serve to identify potential cancer-implicated genes.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Cancer, Genetics, Somatic alleles
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  31. Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment [Download]

    Title: Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment
    Author: Sirgi, Youmna
    Description: The multitude of sects in Lebanon, compounded by a decentralized government, has led to a highly fragmented society. Largely influenced by their roles during the state’s historical development, sects maintain different nationalist viewpoints, influencing their political ambitions and decisions. While some argue that Lebanon should form its own national identity, others argue that Lebanon should integrate into the larger Muslim-Arabic fabric of the Middle East. The fragmented government grants each sect more autonomy to dictate its own affairs, including the ability to establish separate school systems and insert divergent nationalist views in schools, limiting the interaction between sects from adolescence onward. However, as students exit the sectarian environment, say to pursue higher education abroad, they are given the independence to reevaluate their bias and articulate their sectarian and nationalist beliefs. This study aims to identify how students’ removal from a sectarian environment influences their biases. Recent scholarship has focused on the impact of sectarianism within Lebanon’s education system. However, in order to determine the depth of students’ sectarian biases, it is important to understand what happens when they are removed from this environment. In order to do so, this study surveys over 75 Lebanese students who are currently attending university in the United States. Questions focus on students’ educational and familial backgrounds, their preexisting notions of sectarianism, and their current perceptions of sectarianism. To fully understand the notion that students’ sectarian and nationalist identities are malleable based on their environment, further research would be required to survey students who have both exited and re-entered Lebanon. That said, the results of this study indicate that sectarian division, which is currently seen as a deep-rooted reality within Lebanon’s society, may be more circumstantial than previously understood.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Lebanon, Sectarian division, Middle East
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  32. Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion [Download]

    Title: Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion
    Author: Suchowiecki, Karol
    Description: The nucleolus within eukaryotic nuclei is formed from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 in humans. In addition to ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus has been shown to be important in mRNA splicing, DNA damage responses, and RNA metabolism. Nucleoli provide a link between transcription and translation, making them critical for protein expression. Viruses can alter nucleolar function by targeting viral proteins to this structure. HIV-1 early-expressed proteins Tat and Rev both have highly basic nucleolar localization signals (NoLS) which may cause HIV-induced alterations of mRNA splicing, cytoplasmic transport, and translation. HIV-1 effects showed differences in nucleolar availability by highly-basic NoLS-containing peptides within adherent versus migrating leukocytes. This may suggest HIV-1 Tat and Rev only localize to the nucleolus when the infected cell is adherent.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Microbiology, Cellular adhesion and migration, Immunology
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  33. The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise [Download]

    Title: The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise
    Author: Zand, Hillel
    Description: The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is oft heralded as one of the greatest geopolitical conflicts of our time, yet the discourse surrounding this issue tends to gravitate toward political considerations, and less toward the socioeconomic forces at play. In addition, intra-national tensions are often overlooked for the more eye-catching international disputes and developments. One of these intra-national tensions is the Israeli settlement enterprise, which is often painted in the lens of religious and ideological extremism. In reality, the overwhelming majority of Jews emigrating to West Bank settlements have chosen to do so in search of a lower cost of living and higher standard of living, a seemingly impossible combination that has been made feasible by a high degree of government economic intervention in the occupied territories. The juxtaposition of government economic intervention in the settlements with Israel’s neoliberal and market-oriented economy only complicates the issue further. Through a mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis, this research seeks to contribute a socioeconomic perspective to existing theories on the settlement enterprise and the conflict writ large. Specifically, this research tests the theory of Danny Gutwein (University of Haifa) that argues that settlement growth is directly correlated with the rise of Israeli neoliberal economic policy and privatization.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, West Bank, Geopolitics, Israeli settlement enterprise
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  34. Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile [Download]

    Title: Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile
    Author: Williams, Jordan
    Description: This study examined the geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin by looking at Uganda as a case study, and to analyze Uganda’s use and development of the River Nile. It looks at the history of transboundary politics and treaties in the region and of Uganda’s development projects of the region. The project discusses modern relations and agreements, with a focus on the most recent agreement between the Riparian States, the Cooperative Framework Agreement, and how Uganda fits into them with regards to their interest in hydropower development within their borders on the Nile. It then explores possible future developments on the river and the potential for future conflict in the region, and finishes by making recommendations for the Nile Basin and Uganda. The whole project is looked at using the sustainable development paradigm. This study was conducted over six weeks through primarily document review and eight expert interviews. Documents provided historical information and facts and statistics on the modern development and geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin. Field based interviews served to enhance and further the information gathered in document review. All interviewees were experts in their fields and most worked within the Ugandan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment and their directorates. The study was conducted in accordance to ethical considerations and all wishes of interviewees were upheld throughout the paper. The researcher found that modern geopolitics of the region have been greatly influenced by the 1929 and 1959 colonial agreements that gave Egypt power of the Nile. Today geopolitics focus on changing this status quo, despite protests from Egypt. Uganda must balance its position as both an upstream and downstream Riparian state, and could be a key middle ground country for maintaining peace in the region by appealing to both sides of the water sharing debate. Uganda’s primary investment in the river is hydropower, and so they must balance the want to release enough water to generate electricity, and preserving their water catchments to protect the resource for long term use. Other than hydropower, which is a hotspot for international criticism due to environmental and cultural impacts, Uganda has the potential to develop irrigation from the Nile and Lake Victoria that could increase agricultural yields. Uganda’s position in the Nile Basin makes it unique both in its ability to use and regulate the White Nile, and in the political framework of the region.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Geopolitics, Nile Basin, Uganda, Egypt
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  35. Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets [Download]

    Title: Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets
    Author: Aliabouzar, Mitra
    Description: Ultrasound has been embraced as a non-invasive, well-understood and relatively inexpensive tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes compared to other imaging modalities such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, this modality suffers from low sensitivity. To overcome this limitation, ultrasound contrast agents have been introduced which are gas-filled colloidal particles with a size range of 1-7 micrometers. These microbubbles are highly echogenic and therefore they enhance the sensitivity of conventional ultrasound imaging by expansion and contraction in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Currently available microbubbles used for ultrasound imaging and therapeutics are restricted to intravascular space due to their micron size distribution. Recently an interest is developed in designing novel contrast agents with enhanced stability in vivo and a sufficiently small size distribution for extravascular interrogations (Fig.1). Introducing phase-shift droplets which consist of a nanoscale droplet of perfluorocarbons in an encapsulating shell has led to novel ways of approaching ultrasound-based techniques for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These droplets undergo a phase transition to the highly echogenic gaseous state and are convertible to micron-sized bubbles upon the input of sufficient acoustic activation energy which is termed as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) [1]-[3]. In this study, we investigated the ADV thresholds and its dependence on excitation pressure and frequency using acoustic recordings. In addition, we have also compared the scattered response from droplets with that of conventional microbubbles at the corresponding excitation pressure and frequency.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Ultrasound, Perfluoropentane droplets
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  36. Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model [Download]

    Title: Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model
    Author: Basha, Aiesha
    Description: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), is characterized by congenital central nervous system dysfunction resulting in impaired learning and motor skill deficits. FASD affects 2-5% of children in the U.S., with similar or higher rates reported worldwide. Subsequent single-cell RNA-sequencing in cortex of PAE mice showed variable gene expressions of individual neurons that persisted throughout life. Markedly, high expressions of fatty acid elongase 4 (ELOVL4) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, were observed in a specific neuronal population in the PAE mouse cortex. FASN encodes a multi-enzyme protein involved in synthesis of palmitate into long-chain saturated fatty acids, and ELOVL4 encodes a membrane-bound protein involved in elongation of very long chain saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Fatty acids are essential for regulating neuronal structure and function, and interferences in fatty acid metabolism are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism and ADHD. Changes of fatty acid contents suggestively serve as peripheral biomarkers of FASD. However, functions of fatty acids synthesized by ELOVL4 and FASN remain unknown, and pathological mechanisms due to disturbed fatty acid contents in the brain are elusive. Our working hypothesis is that increase of these fatty acid-related gene expressions in the cerebral cortex is involved in the pathophysiology of FASD. To examine this hypothesis, we first tested if the increases of these genes occur at the protein level by performing immunohistochemistry. We further tested the pattern of increases; which types of neuronal cells and cortical regions show the increase, and which subcellular compartments show the increase of the expressions. In this presentation, based on the staining results, we will discuss how the expressions of fatty acid-related genes are altered due to the effects of PAE.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Health sciences, Central nervous system dysfunctions, Immunohistochemistry
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  37. The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults [Download]

    Title: The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults
    Author: Adom, Kelvin
    Description: Introduction: Emerging adulthood is a stage of life characterized by notable personal development across several domains, including social identity. Many emerging adults attend colleges and universities, a context in which substantial social identity growth occurs. James Cameron's three-factor model proposes that social identity is comprised of Centrality, Ingroup Affect, and Ingroup Ties. Centrality refers to the amount of time spent thinking about being a group member. Ingroup Affect refers to the emotions associated with membership in the group. Lastly, Ingroup Ties are the perceptions of similarity, bonds, and belongingness with other group members. Studies have shown that a lack of bonds with social groups predicts negative mental health outcomes, while development of strong social ties predicts positive psychological adjustment to college and lower rates of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, strong social ties to the university have been shown to be associated with lower rates of anxiety and depression. This is particularly important given rates of such internalizing disorders have been increasing in college students, where 21.8% and 13.5% report impairment in functioning from anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The present study hypothesized inverse relationships between social ties to one's university and both anxiety and depression in college students. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 341) attending a private urban university completed self-report matures. These measures included the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Participants also completed the Three Dimensional Strength of Group Identification Scale to measure aspects of their social identity as students of a university. Results: Bivariate correlational analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between overall social identification with the university and depressive symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Affect also had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r = -.18, p < .05) and with worry symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Ties had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r=-0.24, p<.0001), worry symptoms (r=-.12, p<.05) and panic symptoms (r=-.14, p <.05). Discussion: The findings of the present study support prior research which claim that an emerging adult's connection to their educational institutions may be critical for their psychological well being. The importance of these findings could contribute to lower instances of reported depression and anxiety cases on university campuses. Universities can use these findings to develop programs which foster a sense of community; which could ultimately promote more positive mental health on campus and a strong sense of school spirit among college students.
    Keywords: Social Identity, Social Belongingness, Emerging Adulthood, Research Days 2018
    Date Uploaded: 04/26/2018
  38. Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners [Download]

    Title: Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners
    Author: Parchem, Ben
    Description: Background: Sexual risk for HIV is stratified by sexual role and activities, particularly presenting a higher risk for receptive partners due to biological vulnerabilities. Sexual role-based identity among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) often coincides with assumptions regarding power dynamics between sexual partners. Latino MSM often associate pasivo (receptive) roles with less power in the dyad whereas activo (insertive) roles are associated with more power. A more granular understanding of the role socio-economic status (SES) plays in power dynamics, and thus HIV risk, is warranted given the identity-based oppression faced by Latino MSM. Our study aimed to explore the implications of SES for sexual activities among Latino immigrant MSM. Methods: Our sample included 350 Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican immigrant MSM residing in New York City. We estimated SES differential using participants’ responses on questions gauging their sex partner’s education and income compared to their own. We categorized SES as favoring the participant, the partner, or equal between partners. Participants also reported their participation in a series of sexual activities during the most recent sexual encounter with a single partner. Results: Regarding SES differentials, 24% of participants had a higher SES than their partner, 40.9% had a lower SES, and 35.1% reported equal SES. A series of logistic regressions revealed that, as compared to participants with higher or equal SES, participants with lower SES than their sexual partner were more likely to receive oral sex and manual stimulation of their penis and anus by their sexual partner. They were also less likely to penetrate or ejaculate in their partner’s anus. They were not more or less likely to receive anal penetration or ejaculation in their anus from their sexual partner. Conclusions: Although participants with lower SES were more likely to receive oral and manual stimulation, it did not confer an increased risk of HIV through receptive anal intercourse. The conceptualization of dyadic power between activo and pasivo partners was not aligned with SES. To minimize the influence of SES on HIV risk, user-controlled forms of protection such as PrEP may be more of an acceptable option for Latino immigrant MSM.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, HIV, Sexual behavior, Latino studies
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  39. Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model [Download]

    Title: Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model
    Author: Najjari, Mohammad Reza
    Description: Due to the importance of understanding behavior of blood flow in curved arteries, we experimentally modeled the flow of blood analog fluids through curved vessels. The curvature deviates the primary flow and causes the formation of helical motions inside the vessels, i.e. vortices. These vortices play important roles in hemodynamics and can affect mixing of different blood components and wall shear stress inside the artery. Therefore, understanding of the dynamics of these vortices is important. There are some characteristics that can affect the vortices in vessels e.g. rheological properties of the blood analog, vessel wall properties (rigid/elastic), and geometry of vessel. We investigate the morphology of vortical structures inside curved vessels under different conditions and aim to portray a complete picture of their evolution in 3D space. In order to investigate the effect of different parameters on vortices we used a canonical 180˚ curved vessel geometry. The rigid models were machined from an acrylic block. To fabricate the more complex elastic models we developed an injection molding method to produce optically clear elastic vessels from silicone. Our working blood-analog fluid is a mixture of water and glycerin to match the viscosity of blood. Viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of blood were simulated by adding Xanthan gum. The refractive index was perfectly matched to that of the vessel to minimize distortion for imaging with our optical diagnostics. To produce the required variable pulsatile flow rates, an adaptive feedback PID controller was developed that automatically adjusts the input to the pump to match the desired flow rate waveform. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in all experiments to measure the velocity fields inside the curved vessel. After obtaining the velocity data, vortices were detected using the d2 vortex identification method with an in-house Fortran code and vortex circulation analysis was performed. Our findings have resolved conflicting viewpoints in the scientific literature concerning the effects of complex fluids and effect of vessel wall elasticity. Our published results provide justification for using simple Newtonian fluids in rigid geometries as opposed to using more complex fluids in elastic vessels. These simpler models capture all the relevant flow physics and are simpler to construct, and are more amenable to optically-based measurements. Also, we showed that the effects of local elasticity on morphology of vortices are less important compared to dominant effect of geometry and torsion. Therefore, this justifies the use of simple rigid models with realistic geometry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Blood flow, Biology
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  40. Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study [Download]

    Title: Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study
    Author: Scott, Andrea Richards
    Description: While women entrepreneurs have significantly contributed to the U.S. economy, their enterprises have been depicted as being smaller, having less profits, concentrating in low-profit sectors, and generating fewer jobs than their male counterparts (Blank et al., 2010; Hughes, Jennings, Brush, Carter, & Welter, 2012; Marlow, 2014; Minniti & Naude, 2010; U.S. Department of Commerce Economic and Statistics Administration, 2010). Thus, the portrayal of women and their ventures as disadvantage is prevalent in the women entrepreneurship literature and there is a need for research that presents a perspective that does not perpetuate this discourse (Marlow, 2014). The purpose of this qualitative portraiture study is to understand the essence of U.S.-based, growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in growing their businesses by centering women’s ways of knowing in the male normative environment of entrepreneurship. The study explores the following research question with two sub-questions: How do growth-oriented women entrepreneurs understand their experiences in growing their organizations within a male-normative environment of entrepreneurship? How do women entrepreneurs identify and use facilitators to grow their businesses? How do women entrepreneurs describe the experience of acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to grow their businesses? An appreciative inquiry perspective, a key tenet of portraiture methodology that was selected for this study which is a blending of art and science (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997), guided the examination of growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in this study. Rather than looking for the deficiency in the women entrepreneurs’ experiences, this perspective allowed a search for ‘the good’ (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 2008). The ontology that guided this study was social constructivism (Creswell, 2013; Crotty, 1998; Guba & Lincoln, 1989) and the epistemology was based on women’s way of knowing (Belenky, Clinchy, Golbert, & Tarale, 1986). The portraits of the three women entrepreneurs selected for this study were assembled into a gallery with their artifacts and stories organized and presented in a consistent way. My interpretation of each participant’s story was presented in a poetic form which depicted the essence of each woman entrepreneur’s experience in growing her businesses. The findings of this study revealed the following six themes: women’s entrepreneurial experiences, perception of their entrepreneurial characteristics, entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial reflections on gender, entrepreneurial knowing, and entrepreneurial self as knower. Conclusions are presented on the experiences of women entrepreneurs’ growth within the normative environment of entrepreneurship, facilitators that women entrepreneurs use to grow their businesses, women entrepreneurs knowing along with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Human and Organizational Learning, Economics, Women's studies, Portraiture methodology, Entrepreneurship
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  41. Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Download]

    Title: Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Author: Singh, Apurva
    Description: Abstract Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated with radiation therapy (RT). We wish to study whether the heterogeneity of the tumor affects the clinical outcome after RT. A database is available that contains HNSCC images acquired in various modalities. Each image modality gives different information about the patient; we wish to test whether a combination of modalities will help to assess the likelihood of success of RT. The computerized tomography (CT) scan image gives us anatomical information whereas the positron emission tomography (PET) scan gives us physiological information. The tumor is visible in the pretreatment PET images. PET images have poorer resolutions than CT images, but the PET-CT imaging system ensures that the pre-treatment CT images are registered with the PET images. Thus, using the tumor information in the pre-treatment PET image, we can locate the exact position of the tumor in the pre-treatment CT image. On registering the pre-treatment CT images with the post-treatment CT images, we have the original location of the tumor displayed in the post-treatment CT image, which, in turn will give us the location of the presumably cured tumor in the post-treatment PET image. The effectiveness of the treatment can be judged by the presence, location and size of the tumor at a particular time after the start of the treatment. This involves a study of both the pre- and the posttreatment images. Shifts are observed between the various images, however, because of factors including change in the position of the patient between the imaging sessions. Thus, image registration is important to combine the information obtained by the different imaging modalities and also to correct the shift between the pre-and post-baseline images. The clinical data accompanying the database indicate whether there was a local recurrence of the tumor in the patient after the completion of the treatment. The patients are divided into local recurrent and non-local recurrent categories. The RT Plan, included in the database, is used to indicate the tumor boundaries in the pre-treatment PET images. Once the tumor region has been extracted, various texture measures are computed on it. Those include energy measures, moments of the tumor texture, correlation between the tumor pixels and their neighbors, Fourier measures and others. We also aim to examine whether the heterogeneity of tumor textures can be a factor that predicts the treatability of the tumor by radiation therapy.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Radiation oncology, Biomedical engineering, Radiation therapy, Cancer treatment
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  42. Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis [Download]

    Title: Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis
    Author: Shukla, Parag
    Description: Introduction: Globally, 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually, making it the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, inflammation has been established as a key cause of CVD, but the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on cardiovascular (CV) risk remains poorly understood. Psoriasis (PSO), a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased CV events, provides an ideal clinical model to study inflammation and CV risk. Cardiovascular inflammation can be monitored by PET/CT of the aorta. Aortic distensibility (AD) is an important marker of subclinical CVD and has been shown to predict future CV events. Following subclinical markers, such as AD, enables physicians to make judicious treatment decisions before events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina occur. Our study demonstrates a novel association between VI and AD in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. Hypothesis: A reduction in aortic vascular inflammation (VI), measured by PET/CT, will associate with increased AD, measured by PET-MRI at 1-year. Methods: Consecutively recruited PSO patients (N=50) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to quantify VI as target-to-background ratio (TBR). Descending aorta contours on PET-MRI were traced throughout the cardiac cycle [Qflow, Medis] to measure AD. Longitudinal changes in aortic VI and AD were analyzed by multivariable regression. Results: The cohort was middle aged (mean ± SEM: 49.8 ±1.9 years), mostly male (56%), had low CVD risk, and mild-to-moderate PSO. At 1-year follow up, patients had a median improvement in PSO severity of 40% (p<0.001) with use of biological therapy (28/50 patients) while aortic VI decreased by 8% (1.81 ± 0.05 vs 1.67 ± 0.04, p<0.001) and AD increased by 10% (0.61 ± 0.03 vs 0.67 ± 0.04, p=0.04). Reduction in aortic VI was associated with an improvement in AD beyond traditional CV risk factors, statin use, and systemic/biologic PSO therapy (β=-0.36, p=0.04). Conclusion: Improvement in aortic VI in patients with psoriasis by PET/CT is associated with improvement in AD by PET-MRI at 1-year, suggesting that treatment of inflammation may have a favorable impact on functional characteristics of the aorta. These findings further advance our understanding of the role of inflammation in CVD and the utility of PET-MRI for inflammatory CVD risk prediction. Our novel findings can help improve the accuracy of CVD risk prediction, enable physicians to make evidence-based decisions, and decrease the global economic burden of cardiovascular disease on healthcare systems.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, Cardiovascular disease
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  43. Wrath and Woe of Heroes: Translating Male Grief in Homer’s Iliad [Download]

    Title: Wrath and Woe of Heroes: Translating Male Grief in Homer’s Iliad
    Author: Alpert, Margot E.
    Description: Homer’s Iliad has always held a fascination for me in the drama of its central heroes, particularly when it comes to Achilles. The original Greek text holds little back in its depictions of its heroes; Achilles wails as he rips off his clothes and in other moments of heroic redemption drags a body around the city. While there are obvious displays of masculinity within the Iliad, what is often overlooked is a softness and emotional intelligence with which the Ancient Greek portrays these men. My research has been not only locating and examining these moments of purposeful change, but also finding the reason for why they have come to be. In studying translations of Homer’s Iliad, I have found what appears to be a tendency to not only subvert the emotional responses of men, but to masculinize them, especially when it comes to displays of grief. This study pulls from literary theory fields of both translation studies as well as affect theory to examine how translators have interpreted Homer’s original Greek to fit their contemporary standards. My research focuses on three translations of this text: Alexander Pope’s 1715 edition, Samuel Butler’s 1898 edition, and Caroline Alexander’s 2015 edition. Pope takes on the challenge of this translation by updating the text into a metered verse in English, while Butler takes a more standard approach in keeping his translation in prose. However, I found it necessary to include Alexander’s approach, in that her translation provides us the lens of both a contemporary translator and a woman. From these three translations, I have been able to evaluate how translations of this text have changed within a 300 year period, and how these translations represent the cultures of masculinity from which they were created.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Homer, Gender, Masculinity
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  44. Effects of Breastfeeding on Postpartum Depression and Anxiety [Download]

    Title: Effects of Breastfeeding on Postpartum Depression and Anxiety
    Author: Chen, Steven
    Description: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious mental health condition that affects an estimated 13 – 19% of mothers, with well documented negative consequences on maternal and infant health (O’Hara & McCabe, 2013). Research has explored risk factors for PPD, including depression history and social support. However, breastfeeding as a risk factor remains understudied. Recent research has found mixed findings on the relationship between breastfeeding and PPD, in part due to varying operationalization of breastfeeding and depression. Breastfeeding difficulties may not only be due to depression but also anxiety, but anxiety has not been measured as much as depression. To address these research gaps, the present study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and PPD and between breastfeeding and postpartum anxiety. Given that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid (Austin et al., 2010), we hypothesized that there will be a negative relationship between breastfeeding and depression, and between breastfeeding and anxiety. We reviewed medical charts from 283 postpartum mothers who received OBGYN services at 6-weeks postpartum. The sample included predominantly married (58.3%), African American (46.4%) women. The Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to identify women with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with higher scores indicating higher severity. Postpartum mothers were separated into two groups: (1) Breastfeeding group (n= 224), who reported breastfeeding exclusively breastfeeding or combined breastfeeding and formula feeding; and (2) Formula feeding group (n= 58), who reported exclusively formula feeding or formula feeding due to early cessation of breastfeeding. Results indicate no significant difference in depression scores between breastfeeding (M= 0.37, SD= 0.42) and formula feeding groups (M= 0.37, SD= 0.55); t(280)= -0.07, p= 0.95. There was a marginally significant difference in the anxiety subscale, in which the breastfeeding group reported having more anxiety symptoms (M= 0.87, SD= 0.66) than the formula feeding group (M= 0.67, SD= 0.72); t(280)= 1.97, p= 0.050. These findings suggest a mixed relationship between breastfeeding and PPD, and breastfeeding and postpartum anxiety. Future research should be conducted to understand the extent of comorbidity between anxiety and depression. Additionally, research should focus on the role of anxiety in PPD to understand why higher anxiety scores on the EPDS may occur for postpartum mothers who either breastfeed or formula feed their infant. Our results suggest the importance of screening for both PPD and anxiety, and encouraging mothers to make decisions about breastfeeding that are best for them to decrease risk for maternal depression and anxiety.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Postpartum depression, Mental health, Breastfeeding
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  45. Media Coverage and the Gender Gap In Political Ambition [Download]

    Title: Media Coverage and the Gender Gap In Political Ambition
    Author: Chevalier, Kat
    Description: Research has shown that the lack of women in elected office is due to a disparity in the number of women who choose to run. But little research considers whether the media environment may exacerbate this so-called gender gap in political ambition. In this project, I test whether exposure to news stories that emphasize the importance of candidates’ policy expertise and public speaking ability make women less interested in running for office. This hypothesis arises from previous research that finds women often view themselves as less qualified for political office than similarly qualified men. To test the hypothesis, I draw on an original survey experiment conducted in early 2018 with a national sample of adults and a sample of college students. If the media play a role in reinforcing misperceptions that women lack the qualifications to run for office, that may help explain the persistence of gender inequality in the American political institutions.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Media, Gender inequality
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  46. The Explanatory Role of Mechanisms in Providing Successful Medical Treatment [Download]

    Title: The Explanatory Role of Mechanisms in Providing Successful Medical Treatment
    Author: Geoca, Alexandra
    Description: How much must be known about a disease, the human body, and the relationships between the two in order to treat that disease successfully? One of the major debates in the philosophy of biology is centered on the understanding of scientific processes and how those processes can be explained when they occur across different levels in the body. This poster will argue that the best way to provide a medical explanation that will lead to successful treatment is through the use of a mechanistic model. This will be presented through two examples, the first of which is an example that emphasizes the importance of mechanisms in developing new and successful treatments for cancer. The second example tells a story of how failing to understand the mechanism of biointeraction for the drug Thalidomide led to dangerous consequences. This poster will then present the most fitting mechanistic theory to provide an adequate medical explanation. This theory has been developed by Carl Craver, and though he did not intend it to be used as a medical explanation it provides the necessary scaffolding for a sufficient medical explanation that is likely to lead to more successful treatments.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Medical treatment, Biology, Philosophy, Disease, Mechanisms
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  47. Community Partners Facilitate Access to Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender-Diverse People [Download]

    Title: Community Partners Facilitate Access to Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender-Diverse People
    Author: Giegerich, Alyssa
    Description: BACKGROUND: Voice training for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals is in demand, yet is often inaccessible- especially for individuals of minority race or socioeconomic status. To reduce the identified access barriers of cost, availability, and general knowledge of services, clinicians at the GW Speech and Hearing Center partnered with Whitman Walker Health to pilot a program to help people in the urban Washington DC area feminize their voice and communication. METHOD: A 3-hour Saturday afternoon “Voice Feminization” workshop was held at a local safe-space for LGBTQ community members. Nine transgender women and gender non-conforming individuals (all assigned male at birth) learned and practiced adjusting their voice characteristics of pitch, resonance/quality, and intonation in small groups lead by six graduate speech-language pathology clinicians and two licensed speech-language pathologists. Outcome measures included changes (pre-workshop vs. post-workshop) in voice fundamental frequency (pitch), the most salient gender-marker of voice, and post-workshop participant ratings of their voice and the workshop program. Each participant rated the following on a 5 point likert scale: overall workshop, structure of the workshop, content of the workshop, effectiveness of the training, pleasantness/helpfulness of staff, day and time of workshop, length of workshop, do you feel you made progress. Seven of the participants were available for follow-up via phone interview. RESULTS: Speaking pitch (mean fundamental frequency) increased (i.e., feminized) after the workshop by a mean of 2.84ST (SD = 3.71ST, Range = 0.9 – 4.61ST). Changes in intonation, measured by F0 range during speech, varied by individual: 5 increased and 3 deceased their range. All participants felt they made progress during the workshop, rating progress as “very good” on the post-workshop survey (M = 4.11, SD = 1.05). For program evaluation, all areas on the survey were rated as “good” (3) or better on the 1-5 scale. Participants viewed the overall workshop to be “very good” with a mean rating of 4.22 (SD=.67, n=9). Also with mean ratings of 4.22 were content of the workshop, effectiveness of training, and day/time of workshop. Category with highest mean rating (4.89) was pleasantness/helpfulness of staff. Comments indicating desire for a longer workshop were consistent with lowest mean ratings being for structure of the workshop (3.65) and length of workshop (3.22). Comments gathered from participants two weeks after the workshop via follow-up phone calls were consistent with post-workshop data. Generally, participants felt the need to practice their more feminized voice, particularly with a focus on resonance. DISCUSSION: Due to the high ratings of the overall workshop, and quantitative improvement, it is recommended that similar workshops be created with time modifications to benefit the target population and their experience with voice feminization.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Speech and Hearing Sciences, Gender studies, Transgender, Communication, LGBTQ
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  48. HIV Infected Cells Have Depolarized Membrane Potentials and Increased Intracellular Calcium Levels [Download]

    Title: HIV Infected Cells Have Depolarized Membrane Potentials and Increased Intracellular Calcium Levels
    Author: Goydos, Ryan
    Description: Introduction/Background: Ion distribution between the extracellular, cytoplasmic, and organellar spaces creates membrane potentials which drive many of life’s processes. This bioelectric membrane potential, driven by ion channel and pump activity, can be harnessed to allow or prevent entry of signaling mediators like Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. Several HIV proteins (Vpu, Env, Vpr, and Nef) have been reported to function as ion channels or alter ion channel activity. This activity likely influences cell fate including activation and apoptosis. Hypothesis: HIV depolarizes the plasma membrane and alters intracellular calcium levels. Changing the polarization of the plasma membrane would alter the levels of HIV infection. Methods: HIV infected cells were identified using a broadly neutralizing anti-Env antibody (PG9) conjugated to AlexaFluor-647. Membrane potential measurements were done by flow cytometry using the DiBAC4(3) dye as previously reported. Intracellular Ca2+ measurements were also done by flow cytometry using the Fluo-4 dye. Ionomycin and PMA were used to show the contrast in intracellular Ca2+ levels between infected and uninfected cells. To assess the effects of membrane potential changes on HIV replication, 200μM diazoxide was added to cells during infections. Results: HIV infected cells consistently had depolarized membrane potentials in both primary cells and cell lines. When cells were cultured with a depolarizing agent, diazoxide, there was an increase in HIV-infected cells. This membrane depolarization was accompanied by an increased resting level of intracellular Ca2+ in infected cells. Following addition of ionomycin, there was a drastic difference in Ca2+ flow between uninfected and HIV-infected cells. In uninfected cells, the addition of ionomycin induced an influx of Ca2+ while PMA had little effect. In contrast, both ionomycin and PMA induced a large efflux of Ca2+ from HIV infected cells.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, HIV, Microbiology, Immunology, Tropical medicine
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  49. Art-Making for Teachers: How Can Art Therapy Combat Teacher Burnout? [Download]

    Title: Art-Making for Teachers: How Can Art Therapy Combat Teacher Burnout?
    Author: Hagemeir, Christina
    Description: Objective: Human services professionals have a higher rate of burnout than most occupations. For teachers, exhaustion and stress are exasperated by increases class sizes and reduced budgets. High rates of teacher burnout can lead to high teacher turnover and early retirement rates, as well ass, lower levels of behavioral tolerance in the classroom. Since art therapy can be used to help relieve stress and foster positive communication, it may be especially helpful in promoting teachers’ sense of wellness and expressing the burdens of teaching. Method: A one-time workshop conducted with a group of teachers in a Christian school in the Midwest U.S. incorporated art therapy protocols to investigate the benefits of art making. The teachers created 1) art about the upcoming school year and 2) response art to another participant’s artwork. Participants completed a questionnaire about their process for creating each piece of artwork and joined a discussion about the overall process. Findings: The workshop explored feelings of isolation and stress, along with feelings of relief and empathy for others experiencing similar feelings as evidence by the themes that arose in the art, questionnaires, and discussions. Thematic analysis revealed six major themes throughout the original and response artwork: stress responsibility to educate, empathy, acknowledging differences, relying on God, and support. Implications: This workshop demonstrated the effectiveness of art making for increasing support amongst teachers and fostering communication about problems in the school. Participants felt more comfortable conveying their concerns through artwork. In addition, participants felt heard and supported as fellow teachers responded to their concerns and needs visually. The results of this workshop show that art making infused with art therapy protocols can be an effective tool for helping teachers express concerns and receive support as a way to help combat burnout.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Art therapy, Psychology, Education, Visual arts, Psychotherapy
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  50. Breast Cancer Detection Using Transfer Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks [Download]

    Title: Breast Cancer Detection Using Transfer Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks
    Author: Guan, Shuyue
    Description: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in mammography can improve treatment outcomes for breast cancer and provide greater survival times for patients. For breast cancer detection, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) can extract features from mammographic images automatically and then do classification. To train the CNN from scratch, however, requires a large number of labeled images. Such a requirement often is infeasible for some kinds of medical image data such as mammographic tumor images. A promising solution is to extract features by reusing a pretrained CNN model that has been trained by very large image datasets from other fields; alternatively, we could re-train (fine-tune) such a model using a limited number of labeled medical images. This approach is also called transfer learning. In this study, we applied the pre-trained VGG-16 model to extract features from input mammographic images and used those features to train a Neural Network (NN)-classifier. We firstly downloaded mammographic images from the DDSM database and cropped the Regions of Interest (ROIs) of given abnormal areas as ground-truth information. We used the ROIs instead of the entire images to train neural networks. The structure of CNN in transfer learning was the combination of the 13 convolutional layers in pre-trained VGG16 model with a simple full-connected (FC) layer. The weights in the FC layer were randomly initialized and updated by training; other weights were not changed. We used 1300 abnormal ROIs and 1300 normal ROIs. All ROIs were randomly selected and shuffled in class sets. After 100 epochs, the average of 10-fold cross validation accuracy converged at about 0.905 for abnormal vs. normal classifications on mammograms, with no obvious overfitting. Our best model could reach 0.950 accuracy for the abnormal vs. normal case, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.96. This study shows that applying transfer learning in CNN can detect breast cancer from a mammogram, and that training a NN-classifier by feature extraction is a feasible method in transfer learning. Our research is important because it provides a novel technique to improve mammographic detection. Compared with other studies in this field, this study used a different pre-trained model, simpler classification architecture, and classifier, and used more images (2600), and performed at least as well.
    Keywords: Biomedical engineering, Breast cancer, Mammography, Computer-aided diagnosis, Convolutional Neural Network, Research Days 2018
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018