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  1. The Irony of Capital Development: A Critical History of the Origins of Meridian Hill Park from the Perspective of Washington Residents [Download]

    Title: The Irony of Capital Development: A Critical History of the Origins of Meridian Hill Park from the Perspective of Washington Residents
    Author: Francis, Lydia
    Description:
    Keywords: Julian Clement Chase Prize, Washington, D.C., Meridian Hill Park
    Date Uploaded: 07/25/2018
  2. Re-Segregate D.C. Schools: An analysis of gentrification’s peculiar consequences on Francis-Stevens [Download]

    Title: Re-Segregate D.C. Schools: An analysis of gentrification’s peculiar consequences on Francis-Stevens
    Author: Adomatis, Xavier
    Description: In the past five years, the traditionally black D.C. public school Francis-Stevens in northwest D.C. has moved to make itself more appealing to the gentrified neighborhood around it. They have been somewhat successful in drawing in the surrounding community, but many of the students from the area leave after the prekindergarten program and move on to private school. To look at the consequences of this invitation, including the loss of Title I funds, and creates the term transitory enrollment. This paper, in analyzing the causes of transitory enrollment , uses the frameworks of the gilded ghetto, gentry parents, and diversity without oppression by Hyra, Stillman, and Bell & Hartman. These concepts, in order, look at the current state of the nearby community and compare it to the school, study the interactions of parents with similar schools, and present the problems that the motivations of the parents create. The conclusion is that this diversity without oppression creates a gilded ghetto , or in this case a gilded black school , and the resulting transitory enrollment causes oppression within the school . Ultimately, the paper dictates that the school should be segregated by those committed to its success and those who aren’t.
    Keywords: Julian Clement Chase Prize, Washington, D.C., Gentrification, Schools
    Date Uploaded: 07/25/2018
  3. Ep. 104, 1960-01-03, Prospects of Mankind [Download]

    Title: Ep. 104, 1960-01-03, Prospects of Mankind
    Author: Roosevelt, Eleanor
    Description: ER discusses the Cold War with John F. Kennedy, Erwin Canham, and Paul Rosenstein-Rodin.
    Keywords: Prospects of Mankind, Eleanor Roosevelt Radio and Television
    Date Uploaded: 07/24/2018
  4. Ep. 102, 1959-11-15, Prospects of Mankind [Download]

    Title: Ep. 102, 1959-11-15, Prospects of Mankind
    Author: Roosevelt, Eleanor
    Description: ER discusses the hope of nuclear disarmament with Jules Much, Saville Davis, and Trevor Gardner.
    Keywords:
    Date Uploaded: 07/24/2018
  5. Ep. 308, 1962-04-08, Prospects of Mankind [Download]

    Title: Ep. 308, 1962-04-08, Prospects of Mankind
    Author: Roosevelt, Eleanor
    Description: The Common Market and Europe are the topic of conversation for ER, George Ball, Robert Marjolin, Edwin Dale, and others.
    Keywords: Prospects of Mankind, Eleanor Roosevelt Radio and Television
    Date Uploaded: 07/24/2018
  6. Ep. 201, 1960-09-25, Prospects of Mankind [Download]

    Title: Ep. 201, 1960-09-25, Prospects of Mankind
    Author: Roosevelt, Eleanor
    Description: ER and her guests, Hugh Gaitskell, Bertrand Russell, Robert Boothby, and Robert MacKenzie, discuss Great Britain and its relationship with the United States.
    Keywords: Prospects of Mankind, Eleanor Roosevelt Radio and Television
    Date Uploaded: 07/24/2018
  7. Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model [Download]

    Title: Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model
    Author: Hussein, Moataz
    Description: Organizations achieve their strategy through projects. Organizations also embark on strategic change initiatives to fill performance gaps in their operational practices. The interaction between strategy and organizational activities is complicated. Accordingly, integrating the performance of the organizational domains with the strategy domain is a challenge. The strategic portfolio performance management approach in three large organizations was investigated to have a closer look at the performance management practices. Understanding the views of practitioners regarding the strategic portfolio performance management practices in their organizations or those of their clients was important. Therefore, a questionnaire was conducted, and 164 professionals represent different industries, and geographical locations participated. The results showed the absence of a comprehensive enterprise-wide performance management model. Moreover, organizations usually confuse between the success factors of various organizational domains. Therefore, it is not uncommon to find project management metrics used to measure strategic objectives performance. A similar confusion was observed between project performance and operation performance. Additionally, communicating the organization strategy to project and operation domains is still a challenge. More importantly, it was observed that existing portfolio performance models and practices focus on the performance of only projects, and ignore other portfolio components. Finally, organizations overlook the continuity of the strategic alignment of the projects in a portfolio, even though it was significantly relevant. Based on the findings, there is a need for an enterprise-wide strategic portfolio performance management system that looks at enterprise portfolio from a broader perspective than that of just a portfolio of projects. The findings of the field study, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire and literature review were used to develop Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model. The ESP2 model suggests structuring the organizational units into portfolios. Each portfolio encompasses three portfolio components: projects, operations, and change initiatives. The ESP2 model uses a Strategy- Portfolio Integration Matrix that fully integrate between the performance of the portfolio domains with that of the strategy domain. The integration matrix also serves as a useful dashboard that facilitates executive dictions making related to the enterprise performance management. The research contributes to improving the practices of the strategic portfolio performance management. The proposed ESP2 model serves as a basis for further enhancements and research in the field.
    Keywords: Project management, Strategic alignment, Organizational performance management, Project portfolio management
    Date Uploaded: 06/18/2018
  8. Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file) [Download]

    Title: Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file)
    Author: Sigelman, Carol
    Description: Supplementary materials in the attached .zip file for the article published in Journal of Child and Family Studies. Sigelman, C. K. (2018, in press): "Children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS causality, prevention, and social interaction." Article abstract: Guided by both a Piagetian and a naïve theories perspective on disease concepts, this study examined children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS, with special attention to its development, coherence, and sociocultural correlates. It examined age differences among Mexican-American and Euro-American children aged 8 to 13 (N = 158) in both Piagetian level of causal understanding (independent of correctness) and the causal knowledge central to an intuitive theory of AIDS (knowledge of risk behaviors and of the viral disease agent). It explored theoretical coherence in terms of implications of causal understanding and causal knowledge for knowledge of how to prevent AIDS and willingness to interact with people who have it. As predicted, scores on all measures increased significantly with age, and causal knowledge of risk factors exceeded knowledge of corresponding prevention rules. In multiple regression analyses, causal knowledge of both risk factors and the viral disease agent predicted knowledge of prevention and willingness to interact, even with age and other measures controlled. Prevention knowledge predicted willingness to interact even better, whereas the Piagetian measure of casual understanding did not predict either prevention knowledge or willingness to interact. Ethnic group differences were not evident but parent education was related to greater viral knowledge and willingness to interact. The results suggest a good deal of coherence in children’s thinking about this disease while also suggesting the desirability of making explicit the implications of critical causal information about an unfamiliar disease for preventing the disease without stigmatizing those who have it.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Disease prevention, Causality, Child development, Supplementary materials
    Date Uploaded: 06/08/2018
  9. Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design [Download]

    Title: Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design
    Author: Bae, Jung Min
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Saiboat flooding control valve
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  10. Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse [Download]

    Title: Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse
    Author: Adams, Thomas
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Tidal irrigation system in greenhouse
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  11. Strāta, Ground Robot [Download]

    Title: Strāta, Ground Robot
    Author: Barnes, Scott
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Ground robot
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  12. Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices [Download]

    Title: Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices
    Author: George-Warren, Aden
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Shaft alignment tool, Vibration analysis tool
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  13. Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator [Download]

    Title: Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator
    Author: Patron, Aaron
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Portable solar generator, Origami design
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  14. SAE Baja Front Suspension [Download]

    Title: SAE Baja Front Suspension
    Author: Bracco, Jason
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Mini-Baja competition
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  15. Wood Stove Thermal Modeling [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Thermal Modeling
    Author: Arimoto, Brent
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermal modeling
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  16. Wind Turbine Experimental Setup [Download]

    Title: Wind Turbine Experimental Setup
    Author: Hummels, Raymond
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wind turbine testing
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  17. Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental” [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental”
    Author: Camero, Alexus
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermoelectric energy generation
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  18. Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities [Download]

    Title: Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities
    Author: DeMasi, Abigail
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Satellite reaction wheel
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  19. 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report [Download]

    Title: 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report
    Author: Bacskai, Audrey
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Aircraft design build fly
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  20. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  21. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  22. Tales of A Black Colonial: The Foggy Bottom Edition Learning to ‘be’ in an Attempt to Break Free [Download]

    Title: Tales of A Black Colonial: The Foggy Bottom Edition Learning to ‘be’ in an Attempt to Break Free
    Author: Tomi, Nenelwa
    Description: Columbian College needed a name that would distinguish it from local competitors. In 1904, led by an act of U.S. Congress, the board of trustees unanimously voted to rename the institution after slave owner and first president of the United States, Colonel George Washington. Over a century later, the university has evolved into a site of active resistance; constantly battling its problematic history of occupation and enslavement with the advocacy of progressive socio political movements like Black Lives Matter, Me Too and Defend Dreamers. Despite this disturbing historical foundation, the university has chosen to embrace its current mascot, the colonial, since 1926. How does this active exploitative presence and history impact black students who enroll? What are their experiences in the classroom? Irrespective of the persistently overt commitment to diversity, inclusive excellence and transformative practice of itself and higher education, George Washington University still struggles to retain black students. Why has senior leadership failed to effectuate alternative teaching models that disrupt systemic white hegemony? This study explores how implementing decolonizing pedagogies on campus and in curricula can liberate black students’ learning experiences. The data analyzed is drawn from national and institutional data, interviews with black female master’s candidates at GSEHD and my personal reflections as a student and staff member at GW. This research also investigates how black students embody colonial-like attributes as a coping mechanism and further interrogates how the practice of freedom is experienced in the classroom. The findings suggest that there is a transformation deficit at GSEHD for black women, which is reinforced by the preeminence of whiteness as norm.
    Keywords: Transformation, Black feminist thought, Decolonizing the mind, Feminist standpoint epistemology, Spirit-filled leadership, Liberatory education, Teaching as healing
    Date Uploaded: 05/11/2018
  23. Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018 [Download]

    Title: Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018
    Author: Kosowski, Tara (Editor-in-Chief)
    Description: Wooden Teeth is an annual publication and is open to all members of The George Washington University community. Undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, alumni, and staff are encouraged to submit their poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and art. This is the Spring 2018 edition.
    Keywords: GW student publication, GW literary magazine , Poetry, Fiction, Non-fiction, Art
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  24. Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque [Download]

    Title: Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque
    Author: Throckmorton, Frances Estelle
    Description: The handwritten 1894 thesis by Frances Estelle Throckmorton, one of the members of the Columbian College "Original 13." The term "Original 13" refers to the first cohort of 13 women admitted to the Columbian College in 1889. Throckmorton received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Columbian College in 1893 and a Master of Arts in 1894, for which she submitted this thesis about the life and works of Cicero. This thesis is handwritten entirely in Latin.
    Keywords: Manuscript , Handwritten thesis, Columbian College, Original 13 , Masters thesis, Cicero , Cicero, Marcus Tullius
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  25. Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability [Download]

    Title: Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability for the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs United States Senate on March 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  26. Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations [Download]

    Title: Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Daniel R. Pérez, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations Before the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Committee United States Senate on March 29, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory studies, Public policy, Regulatory policy
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  27. Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws [Download]

    Title: Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Jacob Yarborough, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws Before the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission on August 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  28. The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy [Download]

    Title: The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy before the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Task Force on Executive Overreach on May 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  29. An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Pierce, Richard J. Jr.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center Hearing, on an Introduction to a Regulatory Budget before the House Committee on the Budget July 7, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  30. Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives [Download]

    Title: Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives before the United States Senate June 10, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  31. Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard [Download]

    Title: Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement by Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard before the Environment and Public Works Committee on February 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  32. A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals [Download]

    Title: A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals before the United States Senate Homeland Security & Government Affairs Committee on September 16, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  33. Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget before the United States Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on June 23, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  34. Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center. Hearing on Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management Roundtable Discussion, June 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  35. Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Response to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee's Letter Requesting Input on its Regulatory Improvement Effort on May 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  36. Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize [Download]

    Title: Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize
    Author: Okafor, Chinemelu
    Description: Unions advocate for fair employee pay standards and workplace protection: unions can be regarded as a symptom of disequilibrium between the wages workers seek and the wage offered by an employer. Unions serve as powerful institutions for the alleviation of discriminatory workplace practices through the creation of a collective voice for disenfranchised communities. Although union membership offers advantages for workers from marginalized occupational and demographic communities, in the past years overall union membership as a percentage of the U.S. workforce has declined; namely, private sector union membership has declined significantly over time, while public sector union density has remained fairly constant (BLS, 2016). This analysis explores the interrelation between demographic and occupational characteristics and private sector union membership. Private sector union organizers are concerned with developing targeting strategies to reduce attrition rates and recoup membership losses. This paper acknowledges the positive contribution that unions provide to marginalized individuals; thus, the idea supporting this analysis is that considering member profiles and their role in an individual’s decision to unionize might benefit union organizers’ recruitment efforts. Positive, significant results would suggest union organizers target their recruitment efforts toward individuals that have a greater propensity to unionize given demographic and occupational profiles. Using 2013-2016 data taken from the Current Population Survey (CPS), this study investigates the marginal propensity to join a private sector union given personal profile characteristics. Time trends between demographic and occupational characteristic (levels) are first plotted using historical CPS data during the period 2000-2016. The historical trends reveal that union membership levels are highest for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry. To empirically test that these trends exist at the margin, a multidimensional logistic regression is employed to underscore the individual propensity to join (or not join) a private sector union. Demographic measures include race, sex, and age and are included first as explanatory variables, and occupational characteristics- occupation/industry- are added subsequently. Based on the observed CPS data trends, I hypothesize that the results of this analysis will be consistent with the historical level results of the data and confirm that there exists a significant, positive propensity to unionize for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Union memberships, Discrimination, Demographics, Union, Wages, U.S. workforce
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  37. Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology [Download]

    Title: Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology
    Author: Singh, Sheel V.
    Description: Research in molecular ecology and conservation genetics often entails genotyping single nucleotide variants (SNVs). High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA) is a simple and economical method for detecting DNA variants by characterizing the sequence-specific melting behavior of short PCR products. To-date HRMA use has largely focused on medical screenings, but this method has numerous potential applications in primatological genetics. We developed and tested (via Sanger sequencing) several protocols demonstrating the convenience and flexibility of HRMA in primatology. First, we assessed the ability of HRMA to discern color vision status in lemurs (n=87 of 9 species) via X-linked opsin genotypes. Differences in melting curves (temperature and shape) allowed us to reliably identify trichromatic and dichromatic individuals with high accuracy. Second, we targeted SNVs commonly associated with autism and/or behavioral tendencies (oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR) in humans (n=60) and were able to accurately genotype individuals based on melting curves. Third, we used HRMA for rapid species identification using a segment of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1). Results indicate that sympatric primate species, including some lemurs and apes, can be accurately identified using HRMA. Finally, we have used HRMA for health screenings of interleukin-4 (IL4) SNVs that are associated with nematode infection loads in Eulemur rufifrons. Our results demonstrate that HRMA is a multipurpose and robust method for genotyping simple functional and neutral genetic variants.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Primatology, Genetics, High-Resolution Melt Analysis
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  38. Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency [Download]

    Title: Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency
    Author: Spurr, Liam
    Description: Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants, and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the purity-adjusted allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features, and linked it with changes in the total gene expression. We documented higher allele frequency of somatic variants in cancer-implicated genes (Cancer Gene Census, CGC). Furthermore, somatic alleles bearing premature terminating variants (PTVs), when positioned in CGC genes, appeared to be less frequently degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, indicating possible favoring of truncated proteins by the tumor transcriptome. Among the genes with multiple PTVs with high allele frequency were key cancer genes including ARID1, TP53 and NSD1. Altogether, our analysis suggests that high allele frequency of tumor somatic variants can indicate driving functionality, and can serve to identify potential cancer-implicated genes.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Cancer, Genetics, Somatic alleles
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  39. Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment [Download]

    Title: Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment
    Author: Sirgi, Youmna
    Description: The multitude of sects in Lebanon, compounded by a decentralized government, has led to a highly fragmented society. Largely influenced by their roles during the state’s historical development, sects maintain different nationalist viewpoints, influencing their political ambitions and decisions. While some argue that Lebanon should form its own national identity, others argue that Lebanon should integrate into the larger Muslim-Arabic fabric of the Middle East. The fragmented government grants each sect more autonomy to dictate its own affairs, including the ability to establish separate school systems and insert divergent nationalist views in schools, limiting the interaction between sects from adolescence onward. However, as students exit the sectarian environment, say to pursue higher education abroad, they are given the independence to reevaluate their bias and articulate their sectarian and nationalist beliefs. This study aims to identify how students’ removal from a sectarian environment influences their biases. Recent scholarship has focused on the impact of sectarianism within Lebanon’s education system. However, in order to determine the depth of students’ sectarian biases, it is important to understand what happens when they are removed from this environment. In order to do so, this study surveys over 75 Lebanese students who are currently attending university in the United States. Questions focus on students’ educational and familial backgrounds, their preexisting notions of sectarianism, and their current perceptions of sectarianism. To fully understand the notion that students’ sectarian and nationalist identities are malleable based on their environment, further research would be required to survey students who have both exited and re-entered Lebanon. That said, the results of this study indicate that sectarian division, which is currently seen as a deep-rooted reality within Lebanon’s society, may be more circumstantial than previously understood.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Lebanon, Sectarian division, Middle East
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  40. Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion [Download]

    Title: Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion
    Author: Suchowiecki, Karol
    Description: The nucleolus within eukaryotic nuclei is formed from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 in humans. In addition to ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus has been shown to be important in mRNA splicing, DNA damage responses, and RNA metabolism. Nucleoli provide a link between transcription and translation, making them critical for protein expression. Viruses can alter nucleolar function by targeting viral proteins to this structure. HIV-1 early-expressed proteins Tat and Rev both have highly basic nucleolar localization signals (NoLS) which may cause HIV-induced alterations of mRNA splicing, cytoplasmic transport, and translation. HIV-1 effects showed differences in nucleolar availability by highly-basic NoLS-containing peptides within adherent versus migrating leukocytes. This may suggest HIV-1 Tat and Rev only localize to the nucleolus when the infected cell is adherent.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Microbiology, Cellular adhesion and migration, Immunology
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  41. The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise [Download]

    Title: The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise
    Author: Zand, Hillel
    Description: The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is oft heralded as one of the greatest geopolitical conflicts of our time, yet the discourse surrounding this issue tends to gravitate toward political considerations, and less toward the socioeconomic forces at play. In addition, intra-national tensions are often overlooked for the more eye-catching international disputes and developments. One of these intra-national tensions is the Israeli settlement enterprise, which is often painted in the lens of religious and ideological extremism. In reality, the overwhelming majority of Jews emigrating to West Bank settlements have chosen to do so in search of a lower cost of living and higher standard of living, a seemingly impossible combination that has been made feasible by a high degree of government economic intervention in the occupied territories. The juxtaposition of government economic intervention in the settlements with Israel’s neoliberal and market-oriented economy only complicates the issue further. Through a mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis, this research seeks to contribute a socioeconomic perspective to existing theories on the settlement enterprise and the conflict writ large. Specifically, this research tests the theory of Danny Gutwein (University of Haifa) that argues that settlement growth is directly correlated with the rise of Israeli neoliberal economic policy and privatization.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, West Bank, Geopolitics, Israeli settlement enterprise
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  42. Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile [Download]

    Title: Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile
    Author: Williams, Jordan
    Description: This study examined the geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin by looking at Uganda as a case study, and to analyze Uganda’s use and development of the River Nile. It looks at the history of transboundary politics and treaties in the region and of Uganda’s development projects of the region. The project discusses modern relations and agreements, with a focus on the most recent agreement between the Riparian States, the Cooperative Framework Agreement, and how Uganda fits into them with regards to their interest in hydropower development within their borders on the Nile. It then explores possible future developments on the river and the potential for future conflict in the region, and finishes by making recommendations for the Nile Basin and Uganda. The whole project is looked at using the sustainable development paradigm. This study was conducted over six weeks through primarily document review and eight expert interviews. Documents provided historical information and facts and statistics on the modern development and geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin. Field based interviews served to enhance and further the information gathered in document review. All interviewees were experts in their fields and most worked within the Ugandan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment and their directorates. The study was conducted in accordance to ethical considerations and all wishes of interviewees were upheld throughout the paper. The researcher found that modern geopolitics of the region have been greatly influenced by the 1929 and 1959 colonial agreements that gave Egypt power of the Nile. Today geopolitics focus on changing this status quo, despite protests from Egypt. Uganda must balance its position as both an upstream and downstream Riparian state, and could be a key middle ground country for maintaining peace in the region by appealing to both sides of the water sharing debate. Uganda’s primary investment in the river is hydropower, and so they must balance the want to release enough water to generate electricity, and preserving their water catchments to protect the resource for long term use. Other than hydropower, which is a hotspot for international criticism due to environmental and cultural impacts, Uganda has the potential to develop irrigation from the Nile and Lake Victoria that could increase agricultural yields. Uganda’s position in the Nile Basin makes it unique both in its ability to use and regulate the White Nile, and in the political framework of the region.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Geopolitics, Nile Basin, Uganda, Egypt
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  43. Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets [Download]

    Title: Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets
    Author: Aliabouzar, Mitra
    Description: Ultrasound has been embraced as a non-invasive, well-understood and relatively inexpensive tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes compared to other imaging modalities such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, this modality suffers from low sensitivity. To overcome this limitation, ultrasound contrast agents have been introduced which are gas-filled colloidal particles with a size range of 1-7 micrometers. These microbubbles are highly echogenic and therefore they enhance the sensitivity of conventional ultrasound imaging by expansion and contraction in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Currently available microbubbles used for ultrasound imaging and therapeutics are restricted to intravascular space due to their micron size distribution. Recently an interest is developed in designing novel contrast agents with enhanced stability in vivo and a sufficiently small size distribution for extravascular interrogations (Fig.1). Introducing phase-shift droplets which consist of a nanoscale droplet of perfluorocarbons in an encapsulating shell has led to novel ways of approaching ultrasound-based techniques for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These droplets undergo a phase transition to the highly echogenic gaseous state and are convertible to micron-sized bubbles upon the input of sufficient acoustic activation energy which is termed as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) [1]-[3]. In this study, we investigated the ADV thresholds and its dependence on excitation pressure and frequency using acoustic recordings. In addition, we have also compared the scattered response from droplets with that of conventional microbubbles at the corresponding excitation pressure and frequency.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Ultrasound, Perfluoropentane droplets
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  44. Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model [Download]

    Title: Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model
    Author: Basha, Aiesha
    Description: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), is characterized by congenital central nervous system dysfunction resulting in impaired learning and motor skill deficits. FASD affects 2-5% of children in the U.S., with similar or higher rates reported worldwide. Subsequent single-cell RNA-sequencing in cortex of PAE mice showed variable gene expressions of individual neurons that persisted throughout life. Markedly, high expressions of fatty acid elongase 4 (ELOVL4) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, were observed in a specific neuronal population in the PAE mouse cortex. FASN encodes a multi-enzyme protein involved in synthesis of palmitate into long-chain saturated fatty acids, and ELOVL4 encodes a membrane-bound protein involved in elongation of very long chain saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Fatty acids are essential for regulating neuronal structure and function, and interferences in fatty acid metabolism are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism and ADHD. Changes of fatty acid contents suggestively serve as peripheral biomarkers of FASD. However, functions of fatty acids synthesized by ELOVL4 and FASN remain unknown, and pathological mechanisms due to disturbed fatty acid contents in the brain are elusive. Our working hypothesis is that increase of these fatty acid-related gene expressions in the cerebral cortex is involved in the pathophysiology of FASD. To examine this hypothesis, we first tested if the increases of these genes occur at the protein level by performing immunohistochemistry. We further tested the pattern of increases; which types of neuronal cells and cortical regions show the increase, and which subcellular compartments show the increase of the expressions. In this presentation, based on the staining results, we will discuss how the expressions of fatty acid-related genes are altered due to the effects of PAE.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Health sciences, Central nervous system dysfunctions, Immunohistochemistry
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  45. The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults [Download]

    Title: The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults
    Author: Adom, Kelvin
    Description: Introduction: Emerging adulthood is a stage of life characterized by notable personal development across several domains, including social identity. Many emerging adults attend colleges and universities, a context in which substantial social identity growth occurs. James Cameron's three-factor model proposes that social identity is comprised of Centrality, Ingroup Affect, and Ingroup Ties. Centrality refers to the amount of time spent thinking about being a group member. Ingroup Affect refers to the emotions associated with membership in the group. Lastly, Ingroup Ties are the perceptions of similarity, bonds, and belongingness with other group members. Studies have shown that a lack of bonds with social groups predicts negative mental health outcomes, while development of strong social ties predicts positive psychological adjustment to college and lower rates of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, strong social ties to the university have been shown to be associated with lower rates of anxiety and depression. This is particularly important given rates of such internalizing disorders have been increasing in college students, where 21.8% and 13.5% report impairment in functioning from anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The present study hypothesized inverse relationships between social ties to one's university and both anxiety and depression in college students. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 341) attending a private urban university completed self-report matures. These measures included the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Participants also completed the Three Dimensional Strength of Group Identification Scale to measure aspects of their social identity as students of a university. Results: Bivariate correlational analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between overall social identification with the university and depressive symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Affect also had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r = -.18, p < .05) and with worry symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Ties had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r=-0.24, p<.0001), worry symptoms (r=-.12, p<.05) and panic symptoms (r=-.14, p <.05). Discussion: The findings of the present study support prior research which claim that an emerging adult's connection to their educational institutions may be critical for their psychological well being. The importance of these findings could contribute to lower instances of reported depression and anxiety cases on university campuses. Universities can use these findings to develop programs which foster a sense of community; which could ultimately promote more positive mental health on campus and a strong sense of school spirit among college students.
    Keywords: Social Identity, Social Belongingness, Emerging Adulthood, Research Days 2018
    Date Uploaded: 04/26/2018
  46. Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners [Download]

    Title: Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners
    Author: Parchem, Ben
    Description: Background: Sexual risk for HIV is stratified by sexual role and activities, particularly presenting a higher risk for receptive partners due to biological vulnerabilities. Sexual role-based identity among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) often coincides with assumptions regarding power dynamics between sexual partners. Latino MSM often associate pasivo (receptive) roles with less power in the dyad whereas activo (insertive) roles are associated with more power. A more granular understanding of the role socio-economic status (SES) plays in power dynamics, and thus HIV risk, is warranted given the identity-based oppression faced by Latino MSM. Our study aimed to explore the implications of SES for sexual activities among Latino immigrant MSM. Methods: Our sample included 350 Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican immigrant MSM residing in New York City. We estimated SES differential using participants’ responses on questions gauging their sex partner’s education and income compared to their own. We categorized SES as favoring the participant, the partner, or equal between partners. Participants also reported their participation in a series of sexual activities during the most recent sexual encounter with a single partner. Results: Regarding SES differentials, 24% of participants had a higher SES than their partner, 40.9% had a lower SES, and 35.1% reported equal SES. A series of logistic regressions revealed that, as compared to participants with higher or equal SES, participants with lower SES than their sexual partner were more likely to receive oral sex and manual stimulation of their penis and anus by their sexual partner. They were also less likely to penetrate or ejaculate in their partner’s anus. They were not more or less likely to receive anal penetration or ejaculation in their anus from their sexual partner. Conclusions: Although participants with lower SES were more likely to receive oral and manual stimulation, it did not confer an increased risk of HIV through receptive anal intercourse. The conceptualization of dyadic power between activo and pasivo partners was not aligned with SES. To minimize the influence of SES on HIV risk, user-controlled forms of protection such as PrEP may be more of an acceptable option for Latino immigrant MSM.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, HIV, Sexual behavior, Latino studies
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  47. Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model [Download]

    Title: Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model
    Author: Najjari, Mohammad Reza
    Description: Due to the importance of understanding behavior of blood flow in curved arteries, we experimentally modeled the flow of blood analog fluids through curved vessels. The curvature deviates the primary flow and causes the formation of helical motions inside the vessels, i.e. vortices. These vortices play important roles in hemodynamics and can affect mixing of different blood components and wall shear stress inside the artery. Therefore, understanding of the dynamics of these vortices is important. There are some characteristics that can affect the vortices in vessels e.g. rheological properties of the blood analog, vessel wall properties (rigid/elastic), and geometry of vessel. We investigate the morphology of vortical structures inside curved vessels under different conditions and aim to portray a complete picture of their evolution in 3D space. In order to investigate the effect of different parameters on vortices we used a canonical 180˚ curved vessel geometry. The rigid models were machined from an acrylic block. To fabricate the more complex elastic models we developed an injection molding method to produce optically clear elastic vessels from silicone. Our working blood-analog fluid is a mixture of water and glycerin to match the viscosity of blood. Viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of blood were simulated by adding Xanthan gum. The refractive index was perfectly matched to that of the vessel to minimize distortion for imaging with our optical diagnostics. To produce the required variable pulsatile flow rates, an adaptive feedback PID controller was developed that automatically adjusts the input to the pump to match the desired flow rate waveform. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in all experiments to measure the velocity fields inside the curved vessel. After obtaining the velocity data, vortices were detected using the d2 vortex identification method with an in-house Fortran code and vortex circulation analysis was performed. Our findings have resolved conflicting viewpoints in the scientific literature concerning the effects of complex fluids and effect of vessel wall elasticity. Our published results provide justification for using simple Newtonian fluids in rigid geometries as opposed to using more complex fluids in elastic vessels. These simpler models capture all the relevant flow physics and are simpler to construct, and are more amenable to optically-based measurements. Also, we showed that the effects of local elasticity on morphology of vortices are less important compared to dominant effect of geometry and torsion. Therefore, this justifies the use of simple rigid models with realistic geometry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Blood flow, Biology
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  48. Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study [Download]

    Title: Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study
    Author: Scott, Andrea Richards
    Description: While women entrepreneurs have significantly contributed to the U.S. economy, their enterprises have been depicted as being smaller, having less profits, concentrating in low-profit sectors, and generating fewer jobs than their male counterparts (Blank et al., 2010; Hughes, Jennings, Brush, Carter, & Welter, 2012; Marlow, 2014; Minniti & Naude, 2010; U.S. Department of Commerce Economic and Statistics Administration, 2010). Thus, the portrayal of women and their ventures as disadvantage is prevalent in the women entrepreneurship literature and there is a need for research that presents a perspective that does not perpetuate this discourse (Marlow, 2014). The purpose of this qualitative portraiture study is to understand the essence of U.S.-based, growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in growing their businesses by centering women’s ways of knowing in the male normative environment of entrepreneurship. The study explores the following research question with two sub-questions: How do growth-oriented women entrepreneurs understand their experiences in growing their organizations within a male-normative environment of entrepreneurship? How do women entrepreneurs identify and use facilitators to grow their businesses? How do women entrepreneurs describe the experience of acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to grow their businesses? An appreciative inquiry perspective, a key tenet of portraiture methodology that was selected for this study which is a blending of art and science (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997), guided the examination of growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in this study. Rather than looking for the deficiency in the women entrepreneurs’ experiences, this perspective allowed a search for ‘the good’ (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 2008). The ontology that guided this study was social constructivism (Creswell, 2013; Crotty, 1998; Guba & Lincoln, 1989) and the epistemology was based on women’s way of knowing (Belenky, Clinchy, Golbert, & Tarale, 1986). The portraits of the three women entrepreneurs selected for this study were assembled into a gallery with their artifacts and stories organized and presented in a consistent way. My interpretation of each participant’s story was presented in a poetic form which depicted the essence of each woman entrepreneur’s experience in growing her businesses. The findings of this study revealed the following six themes: women’s entrepreneurial experiences, perception of their entrepreneurial characteristics, entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial reflections on gender, entrepreneurial knowing, and entrepreneurial self as knower. Conclusions are presented on the experiences of women entrepreneurs’ growth within the normative environment of entrepreneurship, facilitators that women entrepreneurs use to grow their businesses, women entrepreneurs knowing along with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Human and Organizational Learning, Economics, Women's studies, Portraiture methodology, Entrepreneurship
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  49. Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Download]

    Title: Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Author: Singh, Apurva
    Description: Abstract Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated with radiation therapy (RT). We wish to study whether the heterogeneity of the tumor affects the clinical outcome after RT. A database is available that contains HNSCC images acquired in various modalities. Each image modality gives different information about the patient; we wish to test whether a combination of modalities will help to assess the likelihood of success of RT. The computerized tomography (CT) scan image gives us anatomical information whereas the positron emission tomography (PET) scan gives us physiological information. The tumor is visible in the pretreatment PET images. PET images have poorer resolutions than CT images, but the PET-CT imaging system ensures that the pre-treatment CT images are registered with the PET images. Thus, using the tumor information in the pre-treatment PET image, we can locate the exact position of the tumor in the pre-treatment CT image. On registering the pre-treatment CT images with the post-treatment CT images, we have the original location of the tumor displayed in the post-treatment CT image, which, in turn will give us the location of the presumably cured tumor in the post-treatment PET image. The effectiveness of the treatment can be judged by the presence, location and size of the tumor at a particular time after the start of the treatment. This involves a study of both the pre- and the posttreatment images. Shifts are observed between the various images, however, because of factors including change in the position of the patient between the imaging sessions. Thus, image registration is important to combine the information obtained by the different imaging modalities and also to correct the shift between the pre-and post-baseline images. The clinical data accompanying the database indicate whether there was a local recurrence of the tumor in the patient after the completion of the treatment. The patients are divided into local recurrent and non-local recurrent categories. The RT Plan, included in the database, is used to indicate the tumor boundaries in the pre-treatment PET images. Once the tumor region has been extracted, various texture measures are computed on it. Those include energy measures, moments of the tumor texture, correlation between the tumor pixels and their neighbors, Fourier measures and others. We also aim to examine whether the heterogeneity of tumor textures can be a factor that predicts the treatability of the tumor by radiation therapy.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Radiation oncology, Biomedical engineering, Radiation therapy, Cancer treatment
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  50. Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis [Download]

    Title: Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis
    Author: Shukla, Parag
    Description: Introduction: Globally, 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually, making it the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, inflammation has been established as a key cause of CVD, but the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on cardiovascular (CV) risk remains poorly understood. Psoriasis (PSO), a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased CV events, provides an ideal clinical model to study inflammation and CV risk. Cardiovascular inflammation can be monitored by PET/CT of the aorta. Aortic distensibility (AD) is an important marker of subclinical CVD and has been shown to predict future CV events. Following subclinical markers, such as AD, enables physicians to make judicious treatment decisions before events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina occur. Our study demonstrates a novel association between VI and AD in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. Hypothesis: A reduction in aortic vascular inflammation (VI), measured by PET/CT, will associate with increased AD, measured by PET-MRI at 1-year. Methods: Consecutively recruited PSO patients (N=50) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to quantify VI as target-to-background ratio (TBR). Descending aorta contours on PET-MRI were traced throughout the cardiac cycle [Qflow, Medis] to measure AD. Longitudinal changes in aortic VI and AD were analyzed by multivariable regression. Results: The cohort was middle aged (mean ± SEM: 49.8 ±1.9 years), mostly male (56%), had low CVD risk, and mild-to-moderate PSO. At 1-year follow up, patients had a median improvement in PSO severity of 40% (p<0.001) with use of biological therapy (28/50 patients) while aortic VI decreased by 8% (1.81 ± 0.05 vs 1.67 ± 0.04, p<0.001) and AD increased by 10% (0.61 ± 0.03 vs 0.67 ± 0.04, p=0.04). Reduction in aortic VI was associated with an improvement in AD beyond traditional CV risk factors, statin use, and systemic/biologic PSO therapy (β=-0.36, p=0.04). Conclusion: Improvement in aortic VI in patients with psoriasis by PET/CT is associated with improvement in AD by PET-MRI at 1-year, suggesting that treatment of inflammation may have a favorable impact on functional characteristics of the aorta. These findings further advance our understanding of the role of inflammation in CVD and the utility of PET-MRI for inflammatory CVD risk prediction. Our novel findings can help improve the accuracy of CVD risk prediction, enable physicians to make evidence-based decisions, and decrease the global economic burden of cardiovascular disease on healthcare systems.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, Cardiovascular disease
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018