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  1. Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model [Download]

    Title: Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model
    Author: Hussein, Moataz
    Description: Organizations achieve their strategy through projects. Organizations also embark on strategic change initiatives to fill performance gaps in their operational practices. The interaction between strategy and organizational activities is complicated. Accordingly, integrating the performance of the organizational domains with the strategy domain is a challenge. The strategic portfolio performance management approach in three large organizations was investigated to have a closer look at the performance management practices. Understanding the views of practitioners regarding the strategic portfolio performance management practices in their organizations or those of their clients was important. Therefore, a questionnaire was conducted, and 164 professionals represent different industries, and geographical locations participated. The results showed the absence of a comprehensive enterprise-wide performance management model. Moreover, organizations usually confuse between the success factors of various organizational domains. Therefore, it is not uncommon to find project management metrics used to measure strategic objectives performance. A similar confusion was observed between project performance and operation performance. Additionally, communicating the organization strategy to project and operation domains is still a challenge. More importantly, it was observed that existing portfolio performance models and practices focus on the performance of only projects, and ignore other portfolio components. Finally, organizations overlook the continuity of the strategic alignment of the projects in a portfolio, even though it was significantly relevant. Based on the findings, there is a need for an enterprise-wide strategic portfolio performance management system that looks at enterprise portfolio from a broader perspective than that of just a portfolio of projects. The findings of the field study, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire and literature review were used to develop Enterprise Strategic Portfolio Performance (ESP2) Management Model. The ESP2 model suggests structuring the organizational units into portfolios. Each portfolio encompasses three portfolio components: projects, operations, and change initiatives. The ESP2 model uses a Strategy- Portfolio Integration Matrix that fully integrate between the performance of the portfolio domains with that of the strategy domain. The integration matrix also serves as a useful dashboard that facilitates executive dictions making related to the enterprise performance management. The research contributes to improving the practices of the strategic portfolio performance management. The proposed ESP2 model serves as a basis for further enhancements and research in the field.
    Keywords: Project management, Strategic alignment, Organizational performance management, Project portfolio management
    Date Uploaded: 06/18/2018
  2. Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file) [Download]

    Title: Supplementary Materials and Data for article "Children's Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction" (.zip file)
    Author: Sigelman, Carol
    Description: Supplementary materials in the attached .zip file for the article published in Journal of Child and Family Studies. Sigelman, C. K. (2018, in press): "Children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS causality, prevention, and social interaction." Article abstract: Guided by both a Piagetian and a naïve theories perspective on disease concepts, this study examined children’s thinking about HIV/AIDS, with special attention to its development, coherence, and sociocultural correlates. It examined age differences among Mexican-American and Euro-American children aged 8 to 13 (N = 158) in both Piagetian level of causal understanding (independent of correctness) and the causal knowledge central to an intuitive theory of AIDS (knowledge of risk behaviors and of the viral disease agent). It explored theoretical coherence in terms of implications of causal understanding and causal knowledge for knowledge of how to prevent AIDS and willingness to interact with people who have it. As predicted, scores on all measures increased significantly with age, and causal knowledge of risk factors exceeded knowledge of corresponding prevention rules. In multiple regression analyses, causal knowledge of both risk factors and the viral disease agent predicted knowledge of prevention and willingness to interact, even with age and other measures controlled. Prevention knowledge predicted willingness to interact even better, whereas the Piagetian measure of casual understanding did not predict either prevention knowledge or willingness to interact. Ethnic group differences were not evident but parent education was related to greater viral knowledge and willingness to interact. The results suggest a good deal of coherence in children’s thinking about this disease while also suggesting the desirability of making explicit the implications of critical causal information about an unfamiliar disease for preventing the disease without stigmatizing those who have it.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Disease prevention, Causality, Child development, Supplementary materials
    Date Uploaded: 06/08/2018
  3. Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design [Download]

    Title: Boat Flooding Control: Design and Autonomous Based Design
    Author: Bae, Jung Min
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Saiboat flooding control valve
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  4. Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse [Download]

    Title: Tidal-Irrigation System in the Wilbur V. Harlan Greenhouse
    Author: Adams, Thomas
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Tidal irrigation system in greenhouse
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  5. Strāta, Ground Robot [Download]

    Title: Strāta, Ground Robot
    Author: Barnes, Scott
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Ground robot
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  6. Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices [Download]

    Title: Vibration Analysis and Shaft Alignment Training Devices
    Author: George-Warren, Aden
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Shaft alignment tool, Vibration analysis tool
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  7. Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator [Download]

    Title: Vikasa, Portable Solar Generator
    Author: Patron, Aaron
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Portable solar generator, Origami design
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  8. SAE Baja Front Suspension [Download]

    Title: SAE Baja Front Suspension
    Author: Bracco, Jason
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Mini-Baja competition
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  9. Wood Stove Thermal Modeling [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Thermal Modeling
    Author: Arimoto, Brent
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermal modeling
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  10. Wind Turbine Experimental Setup [Download]

    Title: Wind Turbine Experimental Setup
    Author: Hummels, Raymond
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wind turbine testing
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  11. Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental” [Download]

    Title: Wood Stove Design Challenge 2018 “The Continental”
    Author: Camero, Alexus
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Wood stove, Thermoelectric energy generation
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  12. Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities [Download]

    Title: Development of a Low Cost 3-Axis Reaction Wheel System for Ultra-Fine Satellite Pointing Capabilities
    Author: DeMasi, Abigail
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Satellite reaction wheel
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  13. 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report [Download]

    Title: 2017/2018 AIAA Design, Build, Fly Final Report
    Author: Bacskai, Audrey
    Description:
    Keywords: Mechanical engineering, Senior design, Aircraft design build fly
    Date Uploaded: 05/16/2018
  14. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 7, Number 1, May 2017
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  15. The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington Undergraduate Law Review, Volume 6, Number 1, May 2016
    Author: GWU Pre-Law Student Association
    Description:
    Keywords: Pre-Law, Student works, Undergraduate works
    Date Uploaded: 05/14/2018
  16. Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018 [Download]

    Title: Wooden Teeth: The George Washington University’s Student Art & Literary Magazine, Spring 2018
    Author: Kosowski, Tara (Editor-in-Chief)
    Description: Wooden Teeth is an annual publication and is open to all members of The George Washington University community. Undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, alumni, and staff are encouraged to submit their poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and art. This is the Spring 2018 edition.
    Keywords: GW student publication, GW literary magazine , Poetry, Fiction, Non-fiction, Art
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  17. Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque [Download]

    Title: Marci Tulli Ciceronis Vita Operaque
    Author: Throckmorton, Frances Estelle
    Description: The handwritten 1894 thesis by Frances Estelle Throckmorton, one of the members of the Columbian College "Original 13." The term "Original 13" refers to the first cohort of 13 women admitted to the Columbian College in 1889. Throckmorton received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Columbian College in 1893 and a Master of Arts in 1894, for which she submitted this thesis about the life and works of Cicero. This thesis is handwritten entirely in Latin.
    Keywords: Manuscript , Handwritten thesis, Columbian College, Original 13 , Masters thesis, Cicero , Cicero, Marcus Tullius
    Date Uploaded: 05/08/2018
  18. Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability [Download]

    Title: Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Agency Use of Science in the Rulemaking Process: Proposals for Improving Transparency and Accountability for the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs United States Senate on March 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  19. Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations [Download]

    Title: Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Daniel R. Pérez, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Examining How Small Businesses Confront and Shape Regulations Before the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Committee United States Senate on March 29, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory studies, Public policy, Regulatory policy
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  20. Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws [Download]

    Title: Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller & Jacob Yarborough, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Safety Standard Addressing Blade-Contact Injuries on Table Saws Before the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission on August 9, 2017.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  21. The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy [Download]

    Title: The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on The Federal Government on Autopilot: Delegation of Regulatory Authority to an Unaccountable Bureaucracy before the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Task Force on Executive Overreach on May 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  22. An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: An Introduction to a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Pierce, Richard J. Jr.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center Hearing, on an Introduction to a Regulatory Budget before the House Committee on the Budget July 7, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  23. Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives [Download]

    Title: Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Sofie E. Miller, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Home Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards under the Department of Energy–Stakeholder Perspectives before the United States Senate June 10, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  24. Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard [Download]

    Title: Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Prepared Statement by Sofie E. Miller, Senior Policy Analyst, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Oversight of the Renewable Fuel Standard before the Environment and Public Works Committee on February 24, 2016.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  25. A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals [Download]

    Title: A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on A Review of Regulatory Reform Proposals before the United States Senate Homeland Security & Government Affairs Committee on September 16, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  26. Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget [Download]

    Title: Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington Regulatory Studies Center, Hearing on Accounting for the True Cost of Regulation: Exploring the Possibility of a Regulatory Budget before the United States Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on June 23, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  27. Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center. Hearing on Examining Practical Solutions to Improve the Federal Regulatory Process before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management Roundtable Discussion, June 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  28. Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process [Download]

    Title: Recommendations for Improving the Regulatory Process
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: Prepared Statement of Susan E. Dudley, The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center, Response to the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee's Letter Requesting Input on its Regulatory Improvement Effort on May 4, 2015.
    Keywords: Regulation, Testimony, Testimonies, Federal government, Regulatory policy, Public policy, Regulatory studies
    Date Uploaded: 05/05/2018
  29. Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize [Download]

    Title: Demography and the Marginal Propensity to Unionize
    Author: Okafor, Chinemelu
    Description: Unions advocate for fair employee pay standards and workplace protection: unions can be regarded as a symptom of disequilibrium between the wages workers seek and the wage offered by an employer. Unions serve as powerful institutions for the alleviation of discriminatory workplace practices through the creation of a collective voice for disenfranchised communities. Although union membership offers advantages for workers from marginalized occupational and demographic communities, in the past years overall union membership as a percentage of the U.S. workforce has declined; namely, private sector union membership has declined significantly over time, while public sector union density has remained fairly constant (BLS, 2016). This analysis explores the interrelation between demographic and occupational characteristics and private sector union membership. Private sector union organizers are concerned with developing targeting strategies to reduce attrition rates and recoup membership losses. This paper acknowledges the positive contribution that unions provide to marginalized individuals; thus, the idea supporting this analysis is that considering member profiles and their role in an individual’s decision to unionize might benefit union organizers’ recruitment efforts. Positive, significant results would suggest union organizers target their recruitment efforts toward individuals that have a greater propensity to unionize given demographic and occupational profiles. Using 2013-2016 data taken from the Current Population Survey (CPS), this study investigates the marginal propensity to join a private sector union given personal profile characteristics. Time trends between demographic and occupational characteristic (levels) are first plotted using historical CPS data during the period 2000-2016. The historical trends reveal that union membership levels are highest for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry. To empirically test that these trends exist at the margin, a multidimensional logistic regression is employed to underscore the individual propensity to join (or not join) a private sector union. Demographic measures include race, sex, and age and are included first as explanatory variables, and occupational characteristics- occupation/industry- are added subsequently. Based on the observed CPS data trends, I hypothesize that the results of this analysis will be consistent with the historical level results of the data and confirm that there exists a significant, positive propensity to unionize for black men, individuals ages 45-64, and those in the transportation industry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Union memberships, Discrimination, Demographics, Union, Wages, U.S. workforce
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  30. Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology [Download]

    Title: Rapid, Inexpensive Genotyping and Barcoding of Primates: Multiple Applications for High-Resolution Melt Analysis in Primatology
    Author: Singh, Sheel V.
    Description: Research in molecular ecology and conservation genetics often entails genotyping single nucleotide variants (SNVs). High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA) is a simple and economical method for detecting DNA variants by characterizing the sequence-specific melting behavior of short PCR products. To-date HRMA use has largely focused on medical screenings, but this method has numerous potential applications in primatological genetics. We developed and tested (via Sanger sequencing) several protocols demonstrating the convenience and flexibility of HRMA in primatology. First, we assessed the ability of HRMA to discern color vision status in lemurs (n=87 of 9 species) via X-linked opsin genotypes. Differences in melting curves (temperature and shape) allowed us to reliably identify trichromatic and dichromatic individuals with high accuracy. Second, we targeted SNVs commonly associated with autism and/or behavioral tendencies (oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR) in humans (n=60) and were able to accurately genotype individuals based on melting curves. Third, we used HRMA for rapid species identification using a segment of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1). Results indicate that sympatric primate species, including some lemurs and apes, can be accurately identified using HRMA. Finally, we have used HRMA for health screenings of interleukin-4 (IL4) SNVs that are associated with nematode infection loads in Eulemur rufifrons. Our results demonstrate that HRMA is a multipurpose and robust method for genotyping simple functional and neutral genetic variants.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Primatology, Genetics, High-Resolution Melt Analysis
    Date Uploaded: 04/30/2018
  31. Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency [Download]

    Title: Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis of Somatic Allele Frequency
    Author: Spurr, Liam
    Description: Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants, and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the purity-adjusted allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features, and linked it with changes in the total gene expression. We documented higher allele frequency of somatic variants in cancer-implicated genes (Cancer Gene Census, CGC). Furthermore, somatic alleles bearing premature terminating variants (PTVs), when positioned in CGC genes, appeared to be less frequently degraded via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, indicating possible favoring of truncated proteins by the tumor transcriptome. Among the genes with multiple PTVs with high allele frequency were key cancer genes including ARID1, TP53 and NSD1. Altogether, our analysis suggests that high allele frequency of tumor somatic variants can indicate driving functionality, and can serve to identify potential cancer-implicated genes.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Cancer, Genetics, Somatic alleles
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  32. Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment [Download]

    Title: Understanding Outbound Student Mobility in Lebanon's Sectarian Environment
    Author: Sirgi, Youmna
    Description: The multitude of sects in Lebanon, compounded by a decentralized government, has led to a highly fragmented society. Largely influenced by their roles during the state’s historical development, sects maintain different nationalist viewpoints, influencing their political ambitions and decisions. While some argue that Lebanon should form its own national identity, others argue that Lebanon should integrate into the larger Muslim-Arabic fabric of the Middle East. The fragmented government grants each sect more autonomy to dictate its own affairs, including the ability to establish separate school systems and insert divergent nationalist views in schools, limiting the interaction between sects from adolescence onward. However, as students exit the sectarian environment, say to pursue higher education abroad, they are given the independence to reevaluate their bias and articulate their sectarian and nationalist beliefs. This study aims to identify how students’ removal from a sectarian environment influences their biases. Recent scholarship has focused on the impact of sectarianism within Lebanon’s education system. However, in order to determine the depth of students’ sectarian biases, it is important to understand what happens when they are removed from this environment. In order to do so, this study surveys over 75 Lebanese students who are currently attending university in the United States. Questions focus on students’ educational and familial backgrounds, their preexisting notions of sectarianism, and their current perceptions of sectarianism. To fully understand the notion that students’ sectarian and nationalist identities are malleable based on their environment, further research would be required to survey students who have both exited and re-entered Lebanon. That said, the results of this study indicate that sectarian division, which is currently seen as a deep-rooted reality within Lebanon’s society, may be more circumstantial than previously understood.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Lebanon, Sectarian division, Middle East
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  33. Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion [Download]

    Title: Nucleolar Access Is Variable in Leukocytes Depending on Cellular Migration & Adhesion
    Author: Suchowiecki, Karol
    Description: The nucleolus within eukaryotic nuclei is formed from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) regions of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22 in humans. In addition to ribosome biogenesis, the nucleolus has been shown to be important in mRNA splicing, DNA damage responses, and RNA metabolism. Nucleoli provide a link between transcription and translation, making them critical for protein expression. Viruses can alter nucleolar function by targeting viral proteins to this structure. HIV-1 early-expressed proteins Tat and Rev both have highly basic nucleolar localization signals (NoLS) which may cause HIV-induced alterations of mRNA splicing, cytoplasmic transport, and translation. HIV-1 effects showed differences in nucleolar availability by highly-basic NoLS-containing peptides within adherent versus migrating leukocytes. This may suggest HIV-1 Tat and Rev only localize to the nucleolus when the infected cell is adherent.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Microbiology, Cellular adhesion and migration, Immunology
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  34. The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise [Download]

    Title: The Welfare State Across the Green Line: Measuring the Effects of Israeli Economic Policy on the West Bank Settlement Enterprise
    Author: Zand, Hillel
    Description: The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is oft heralded as one of the greatest geopolitical conflicts of our time, yet the discourse surrounding this issue tends to gravitate toward political considerations, and less toward the socioeconomic forces at play. In addition, intra-national tensions are often overlooked for the more eye-catching international disputes and developments. One of these intra-national tensions is the Israeli settlement enterprise, which is often painted in the lens of religious and ideological extremism. In reality, the overwhelming majority of Jews emigrating to West Bank settlements have chosen to do so in search of a lower cost of living and higher standard of living, a seemingly impossible combination that has been made feasible by a high degree of government economic intervention in the occupied territories. The juxtaposition of government economic intervention in the settlements with Israel’s neoliberal and market-oriented economy only complicates the issue further. Through a mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis, this research seeks to contribute a socioeconomic perspective to existing theories on the settlement enterprise and the conflict writ large. Specifically, this research tests the theory of Danny Gutwein (University of Haifa) that argues that settlement growth is directly correlated with the rise of Israeli neoliberal economic policy and privatization.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, West Bank, Geopolitics, Israeli settlement enterprise
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  35. Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile [Download]

    Title: Geopolitical Relations: Uganda’s Role in the Development and Use of the River Nile
    Author: Williams, Jordan
    Description: This study examined the geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin by looking at Uganda as a case study, and to analyze Uganda’s use and development of the River Nile. It looks at the history of transboundary politics and treaties in the region and of Uganda’s development projects of the region. The project discusses modern relations and agreements, with a focus on the most recent agreement between the Riparian States, the Cooperative Framework Agreement, and how Uganda fits into them with regards to their interest in hydropower development within their borders on the Nile. It then explores possible future developments on the river and the potential for future conflict in the region, and finishes by making recommendations for the Nile Basin and Uganda. The whole project is looked at using the sustainable development paradigm. This study was conducted over six weeks through primarily document review and eight expert interviews. Documents provided historical information and facts and statistics on the modern development and geopolitical relations of the Nile Basin. Field based interviews served to enhance and further the information gathered in document review. All interviewees were experts in their fields and most worked within the Ugandan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment and their directorates. The study was conducted in accordance to ethical considerations and all wishes of interviewees were upheld throughout the paper. The researcher found that modern geopolitics of the region have been greatly influenced by the 1929 and 1959 colonial agreements that gave Egypt power of the Nile. Today geopolitics focus on changing this status quo, despite protests from Egypt. Uganda must balance its position as both an upstream and downstream Riparian state, and could be a key middle ground country for maintaining peace in the region by appealing to both sides of the water sharing debate. Uganda’s primary investment in the river is hydropower, and so they must balance the want to release enough water to generate electricity, and preserving their water catchments to protect the resource for long term use. Other than hydropower, which is a hotspot for international criticism due to environmental and cultural impacts, Uganda has the potential to develop irrigation from the Nile and Lake Victoria that could increase agricultural yields. Uganda’s position in the Nile Basin makes it unique both in its ability to use and regulate the White Nile, and in the political framework of the region.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Geopolitics, Nile Basin, Uganda, Egypt
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  36. Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets [Download]

    Title: Acoustic Vaporization Threshold of Lipid Coated Perfluoropentane Droplets
    Author: Aliabouzar, Mitra
    Description: Ultrasound has been embraced as a non-invasive, well-understood and relatively inexpensive tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes compared to other imaging modalities such as computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, this modality suffers from low sensitivity. To overcome this limitation, ultrasound contrast agents have been introduced which are gas-filled colloidal particles with a size range of 1-7 micrometers. These microbubbles are highly echogenic and therefore they enhance the sensitivity of conventional ultrasound imaging by expansion and contraction in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Currently available microbubbles used for ultrasound imaging and therapeutics are restricted to intravascular space due to their micron size distribution. Recently an interest is developed in designing novel contrast agents with enhanced stability in vivo and a sufficiently small size distribution for extravascular interrogations (Fig.1). Introducing phase-shift droplets which consist of a nanoscale droplet of perfluorocarbons in an encapsulating shell has led to novel ways of approaching ultrasound-based techniques for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These droplets undergo a phase transition to the highly echogenic gaseous state and are convertible to micron-sized bubbles upon the input of sufficient acoustic activation energy which is termed as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) [1]-[3]. In this study, we investigated the ADV thresholds and its dependence on excitation pressure and frequency using acoustic recordings. In addition, we have also compared the scattered response from droplets with that of conventional microbubbles at the corresponding excitation pressure and frequency.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Ultrasound, Perfluoropentane droplets
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  37. Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model [Download]

    Title: Overexpressions of Fatty Acid-Related Genes During Neurodevelopment in a FASD Model
    Author: Basha, Aiesha
    Description: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), is characterized by congenital central nervous system dysfunction resulting in impaired learning and motor skill deficits. FASD affects 2-5% of children in the U.S., with similar or higher rates reported worldwide. Subsequent single-cell RNA-sequencing in cortex of PAE mice showed variable gene expressions of individual neurons that persisted throughout life. Markedly, high expressions of fatty acid elongase 4 (ELOVL4) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, were observed in a specific neuronal population in the PAE mouse cortex. FASN encodes a multi-enzyme protein involved in synthesis of palmitate into long-chain saturated fatty acids, and ELOVL4 encodes a membrane-bound protein involved in elongation of very long chain saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Fatty acids are essential for regulating neuronal structure and function, and interferences in fatty acid metabolism are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism and ADHD. Changes of fatty acid contents suggestively serve as peripheral biomarkers of FASD. However, functions of fatty acids synthesized by ELOVL4 and FASN remain unknown, and pathological mechanisms due to disturbed fatty acid contents in the brain are elusive. Our working hypothesis is that increase of these fatty acid-related gene expressions in the cerebral cortex is involved in the pathophysiology of FASD. To examine this hypothesis, we first tested if the increases of these genes occur at the protein level by performing immunohistochemistry. We further tested the pattern of increases; which types of neuronal cells and cortical regions show the increase, and which subcellular compartments show the increase of the expressions. In this presentation, based on the staining results, we will discuss how the expressions of fatty acid-related genes are altered due to the effects of PAE.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Health sciences, Central nervous system dysfunctions, Immunohistochemistry
    Date Uploaded: 04/28/2018
  38. The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults [Download]

    Title: The Effect of University Belongingness in Anxiety and Depression Among Emerging Adults
    Author: Adom, Kelvin
    Description: Introduction: Emerging adulthood is a stage of life characterized by notable personal development across several domains, including social identity. Many emerging adults attend colleges and universities, a context in which substantial social identity growth occurs. James Cameron's three-factor model proposes that social identity is comprised of Centrality, Ingroup Affect, and Ingroup Ties. Centrality refers to the amount of time spent thinking about being a group member. Ingroup Affect refers to the emotions associated with membership in the group. Lastly, Ingroup Ties are the perceptions of similarity, bonds, and belongingness with other group members. Studies have shown that a lack of bonds with social groups predicts negative mental health outcomes, while development of strong social ties predicts positive psychological adjustment to college and lower rates of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, strong social ties to the university have been shown to be associated with lower rates of anxiety and depression. This is particularly important given rates of such internalizing disorders have been increasing in college students, where 21.8% and 13.5% report impairment in functioning from anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The present study hypothesized inverse relationships between social ties to one's university and both anxiety and depression in college students. Methods: Undergraduate students (n = 341) attending a private urban university completed self-report matures. These measures included the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Participants also completed the Three Dimensional Strength of Group Identification Scale to measure aspects of their social identity as students of a university. Results: Bivariate correlational analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between overall social identification with the university and depressive symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Affect also had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r = -.18, p < .05) and with worry symptoms (r = -.16, p < .05). Ingroup Ties had a significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms (r=-0.24, p<.0001), worry symptoms (r=-.12, p<.05) and panic symptoms (r=-.14, p <.05). Discussion: The findings of the present study support prior research which claim that an emerging adult's connection to their educational institutions may be critical for their psychological well being. The importance of these findings could contribute to lower instances of reported depression and anxiety cases on university campuses. Universities can use these findings to develop programs which foster a sense of community; which could ultimately promote more positive mental health on campus and a strong sense of school spirit among college students.
    Keywords: Social Identity, Social Belongingness, Emerging Adulthood, Research Days 2018
    Date Uploaded: 04/26/2018
  39. Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners [Download]

    Title: Socio-Economic Status as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors Among Latino Immigrant MSM and Their Sexual Partners
    Author: Parchem, Ben
    Description: Background: Sexual risk for HIV is stratified by sexual role and activities, particularly presenting a higher risk for receptive partners due to biological vulnerabilities. Sexual role-based identity among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) often coincides with assumptions regarding power dynamics between sexual partners. Latino MSM often associate pasivo (receptive) roles with less power in the dyad whereas activo (insertive) roles are associated with more power. A more granular understanding of the role socio-economic status (SES) plays in power dynamics, and thus HIV risk, is warranted given the identity-based oppression faced by Latino MSM. Our study aimed to explore the implications of SES for sexual activities among Latino immigrant MSM. Methods: Our sample included 350 Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican immigrant MSM residing in New York City. We estimated SES differential using participants’ responses on questions gauging their sex partner’s education and income compared to their own. We categorized SES as favoring the participant, the partner, or equal between partners. Participants also reported their participation in a series of sexual activities during the most recent sexual encounter with a single partner. Results: Regarding SES differentials, 24% of participants had a higher SES than their partner, 40.9% had a lower SES, and 35.1% reported equal SES. A series of logistic regressions revealed that, as compared to participants with higher or equal SES, participants with lower SES than their sexual partner were more likely to receive oral sex and manual stimulation of their penis and anus by their sexual partner. They were also less likely to penetrate or ejaculate in their partner’s anus. They were not more or less likely to receive anal penetration or ejaculation in their anus from their sexual partner. Conclusions: Although participants with lower SES were more likely to receive oral and manual stimulation, it did not confer an increased risk of HIV through receptive anal intercourse. The conceptualization of dyadic power between activo and pasivo partners was not aligned with SES. To minimize the influence of SES on HIV risk, user-controlled forms of protection such as PrEP may be more of an acceptable option for Latino immigrant MSM.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, HIV, Sexual behavior, Latino studies
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  40. Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model [Download]

    Title: Pulsatile flows in a Curved Artery Model
    Author: Najjari, Mohammad Reza
    Description: Due to the importance of understanding behavior of blood flow in curved arteries, we experimentally modeled the flow of blood analog fluids through curved vessels. The curvature deviates the primary flow and causes the formation of helical motions inside the vessels, i.e. vortices. These vortices play important roles in hemodynamics and can affect mixing of different blood components and wall shear stress inside the artery. Therefore, understanding of the dynamics of these vortices is important. There are some characteristics that can affect the vortices in vessels e.g. rheological properties of the blood analog, vessel wall properties (rigid/elastic), and geometry of vessel. We investigate the morphology of vortical structures inside curved vessels under different conditions and aim to portray a complete picture of their evolution in 3D space. In order to investigate the effect of different parameters on vortices we used a canonical 180˚ curved vessel geometry. The rigid models were machined from an acrylic block. To fabricate the more complex elastic models we developed an injection molding method to produce optically clear elastic vessels from silicone. Our working blood-analog fluid is a mixture of water and glycerin to match the viscosity of blood. Viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of blood were simulated by adding Xanthan gum. The refractive index was perfectly matched to that of the vessel to minimize distortion for imaging with our optical diagnostics. To produce the required variable pulsatile flow rates, an adaptive feedback PID controller was developed that automatically adjusts the input to the pump to match the desired flow rate waveform. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in all experiments to measure the velocity fields inside the curved vessel. After obtaining the velocity data, vortices were detected using the d2 vortex identification method with an in-house Fortran code and vortex circulation analysis was performed. Our findings have resolved conflicting viewpoints in the scientific literature concerning the effects of complex fluids and effect of vessel wall elasticity. Our published results provide justification for using simple Newtonian fluids in rigid geometries as opposed to using more complex fluids in elastic vessels. These simpler models capture all the relevant flow physics and are simpler to construct, and are more amenable to optically-based measurements. Also, we showed that the effects of local elasticity on morphology of vortices are less important compared to dominant effect of geometry and torsion. Therefore, this justifies the use of simple rigid models with realistic geometry.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Blood flow, Biology
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  41. Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study [Download]

    Title: Understanding the Experience of Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs: A Portraiture Study
    Author: Scott, Andrea Richards
    Description: While women entrepreneurs have significantly contributed to the U.S. economy, their enterprises have been depicted as being smaller, having less profits, concentrating in low-profit sectors, and generating fewer jobs than their male counterparts (Blank et al., 2010; Hughes, Jennings, Brush, Carter, & Welter, 2012; Marlow, 2014; Minniti & Naude, 2010; U.S. Department of Commerce Economic and Statistics Administration, 2010). Thus, the portrayal of women and their ventures as disadvantage is prevalent in the women entrepreneurship literature and there is a need for research that presents a perspective that does not perpetuate this discourse (Marlow, 2014). The purpose of this qualitative portraiture study is to understand the essence of U.S.-based, growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in growing their businesses by centering women’s ways of knowing in the male normative environment of entrepreneurship. The study explores the following research question with two sub-questions: How do growth-oriented women entrepreneurs understand their experiences in growing their organizations within a male-normative environment of entrepreneurship? How do women entrepreneurs identify and use facilitators to grow their businesses? How do women entrepreneurs describe the experience of acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to grow their businesses? An appreciative inquiry perspective, a key tenet of portraiture methodology that was selected for this study which is a blending of art and science (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997), guided the examination of growth-oriented women entrepreneurs’ experiences in this study. Rather than looking for the deficiency in the women entrepreneurs’ experiences, this perspective allowed a search for ‘the good’ (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 2008). The ontology that guided this study was social constructivism (Creswell, 2013; Crotty, 1998; Guba & Lincoln, 1989) and the epistemology was based on women’s way of knowing (Belenky, Clinchy, Golbert, & Tarale, 1986). The portraits of the three women entrepreneurs selected for this study were assembled into a gallery with their artifacts and stories organized and presented in a consistent way. My interpretation of each participant’s story was presented in a poetic form which depicted the essence of each woman entrepreneur’s experience in growing her businesses. The findings of this study revealed the following six themes: women’s entrepreneurial experiences, perception of their entrepreneurial characteristics, entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial reflections on gender, entrepreneurial knowing, and entrepreneurial self as knower. Conclusions are presented on the experiences of women entrepreneurs’ growth within the normative environment of entrepreneurship, facilitators that women entrepreneurs use to grow their businesses, women entrepreneurs knowing along with implications for research and practice.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Human and Organizational Learning, Economics, Women's studies, Portraiture methodology, Entrepreneurship
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  42. Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma [Download]

    Title: Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Author: Singh, Apurva
    Description: Abstract Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is usually treated with radiation therapy (RT). We wish to study whether the heterogeneity of the tumor affects the clinical outcome after RT. A database is available that contains HNSCC images acquired in various modalities. Each image modality gives different information about the patient; we wish to test whether a combination of modalities will help to assess the likelihood of success of RT. The computerized tomography (CT) scan image gives us anatomical information whereas the positron emission tomography (PET) scan gives us physiological information. The tumor is visible in the pretreatment PET images. PET images have poorer resolutions than CT images, but the PET-CT imaging system ensures that the pre-treatment CT images are registered with the PET images. Thus, using the tumor information in the pre-treatment PET image, we can locate the exact position of the tumor in the pre-treatment CT image. On registering the pre-treatment CT images with the post-treatment CT images, we have the original location of the tumor displayed in the post-treatment CT image, which, in turn will give us the location of the presumably cured tumor in the post-treatment PET image. The effectiveness of the treatment can be judged by the presence, location and size of the tumor at a particular time after the start of the treatment. This involves a study of both the pre- and the posttreatment images. Shifts are observed between the various images, however, because of factors including change in the position of the patient between the imaging sessions. Thus, image registration is important to combine the information obtained by the different imaging modalities and also to correct the shift between the pre-and post-baseline images. The clinical data accompanying the database indicate whether there was a local recurrence of the tumor in the patient after the completion of the treatment. The patients are divided into local recurrent and non-local recurrent categories. The RT Plan, included in the database, is used to indicate the tumor boundaries in the pre-treatment PET images. Once the tumor region has been extracted, various texture measures are computed on it. Those include energy measures, moments of the tumor texture, correlation between the tumor pixels and their neighbors, Fourier measures and others. We also aim to examine whether the heterogeneity of tumor textures can be a factor that predicts the treatability of the tumor by radiation therapy.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Radiation oncology, Biomedical engineering, Radiation therapy, Cancer treatment
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  43. Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis [Download]

    Title: Improvement in Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT Associates with Improvement in Aortic Distensibility by MRI at One-Year in Psoriasis
    Author: Shukla, Parag
    Description: Introduction: Globally, 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually, making it the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, inflammation has been established as a key cause of CVD, but the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on cardiovascular (CV) risk remains poorly understood. Psoriasis (PSO), a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased CV events, provides an ideal clinical model to study inflammation and CV risk. Cardiovascular inflammation can be monitored by PET/CT of the aorta. Aortic distensibility (AD) is an important marker of subclinical CVD and has been shown to predict future CV events. Following subclinical markers, such as AD, enables physicians to make judicious treatment decisions before events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina occur. Our study demonstrates a novel association between VI and AD in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. Hypothesis: A reduction in aortic vascular inflammation (VI), measured by PET/CT, will associate with increased AD, measured by PET-MRI at 1-year. Methods: Consecutively recruited PSO patients (N=50) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to quantify VI as target-to-background ratio (TBR). Descending aorta contours on PET-MRI were traced throughout the cardiac cycle [Qflow, Medis] to measure AD. Longitudinal changes in aortic VI and AD were analyzed by multivariable regression. Results: The cohort was middle aged (mean ± SEM: 49.8 ±1.9 years), mostly male (56%), had low CVD risk, and mild-to-moderate PSO. At 1-year follow up, patients had a median improvement in PSO severity of 40% (p<0.001) with use of biological therapy (28/50 patients) while aortic VI decreased by 8% (1.81 ± 0.05 vs 1.67 ± 0.04, p<0.001) and AD increased by 10% (0.61 ± 0.03 vs 0.67 ± 0.04, p=0.04). Reduction in aortic VI was associated with an improvement in AD beyond traditional CV risk factors, statin use, and systemic/biologic PSO therapy (β=-0.36, p=0.04). Conclusion: Improvement in aortic VI in patients with psoriasis by PET/CT is associated with improvement in AD by PET-MRI at 1-year, suggesting that treatment of inflammation may have a favorable impact on functional characteristics of the aorta. These findings further advance our understanding of the role of inflammation in CVD and the utility of PET-MRI for inflammatory CVD risk prediction. Our novel findings can help improve the accuracy of CVD risk prediction, enable physicians to make evidence-based decisions, and decrease the global economic burden of cardiovascular disease on healthcare systems.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, Cardiovascular disease
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  44. Wrath and Woe of Heroes: Translating Male Grief in Homer’s Iliad [Download]

    Title: Wrath and Woe of Heroes: Translating Male Grief in Homer’s Iliad
    Author: Alpert, Margot E.
    Description: Homer’s Iliad has always held a fascination for me in the drama of its central heroes, particularly when it comes to Achilles. The original Greek text holds little back in its depictions of its heroes; Achilles wails as he rips off his clothes and in other moments of heroic redemption drags a body around the city. While there are obvious displays of masculinity within the Iliad, what is often overlooked is a softness and emotional intelligence with which the Ancient Greek portrays these men. My research has been not only locating and examining these moments of purposeful change, but also finding the reason for why they have come to be. In studying translations of Homer’s Iliad, I have found what appears to be a tendency to not only subvert the emotional responses of men, but to masculinize them, especially when it comes to displays of grief. This study pulls from literary theory fields of both translation studies as well as affect theory to examine how translators have interpreted Homer’s original Greek to fit their contemporary standards. My research focuses on three translations of this text: Alexander Pope’s 1715 edition, Samuel Butler’s 1898 edition, and Caroline Alexander’s 2015 edition. Pope takes on the challenge of this translation by updating the text into a metered verse in English, while Butler takes a more standard approach in keeping his translation in prose. However, I found it necessary to include Alexander’s approach, in that her translation provides us the lens of both a contemporary translator and a woman. From these three translations, I have been able to evaluate how translations of this text have changed within a 300 year period, and how these translations represent the cultures of masculinity from which they were created.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Homer, Gender, Masculinity
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  45. Effects of Breastfeeding on Postpartum Depression and Anxiety [Download]

    Title: Effects of Breastfeeding on Postpartum Depression and Anxiety
    Author: Chen, Steven
    Description: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious mental health condition that affects an estimated 13 – 19% of mothers, with well documented negative consequences on maternal and infant health (O’Hara & McCabe, 2013). Research has explored risk factors for PPD, including depression history and social support. However, breastfeeding as a risk factor remains understudied. Recent research has found mixed findings on the relationship between breastfeeding and PPD, in part due to varying operationalization of breastfeeding and depression. Breastfeeding difficulties may not only be due to depression but also anxiety, but anxiety has not been measured as much as depression. To address these research gaps, the present study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and PPD and between breastfeeding and postpartum anxiety. Given that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid (Austin et al., 2010), we hypothesized that there will be a negative relationship between breastfeeding and depression, and between breastfeeding and anxiety. We reviewed medical charts from 283 postpartum mothers who received OBGYN services at 6-weeks postpartum. The sample included predominantly married (58.3%), African American (46.4%) women. The Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to identify women with symptoms of both depression and anxiety, with higher scores indicating higher severity. Postpartum mothers were separated into two groups: (1) Breastfeeding group (n= 224), who reported breastfeeding exclusively breastfeeding or combined breastfeeding and formula feeding; and (2) Formula feeding group (n= 58), who reported exclusively formula feeding or formula feeding due to early cessation of breastfeeding. Results indicate no significant difference in depression scores between breastfeeding (M= 0.37, SD= 0.42) and formula feeding groups (M= 0.37, SD= 0.55); t(280)= -0.07, p= 0.95. There was a marginally significant difference in the anxiety subscale, in which the breastfeeding group reported having more anxiety symptoms (M= 0.87, SD= 0.66) than the formula feeding group (M= 0.67, SD= 0.72); t(280)= 1.97, p= 0.050. These findings suggest a mixed relationship between breastfeeding and PPD, and breastfeeding and postpartum anxiety. Future research should be conducted to understand the extent of comorbidity between anxiety and depression. Additionally, research should focus on the role of anxiety in PPD to understand why higher anxiety scores on the EPDS may occur for postpartum mothers who either breastfeed or formula feed their infant. Our results suggest the importance of screening for both PPD and anxiety, and encouraging mothers to make decisions about breastfeeding that are best for them to decrease risk for maternal depression and anxiety.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Postpartum depression, Mental health, Breastfeeding
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  46. Media Coverage and the Gender Gap In Political Ambition [Download]

    Title: Media Coverage and the Gender Gap In Political Ambition
    Author: Chevalier, Kat
    Description: Research has shown that the lack of women in elected office is due to a disparity in the number of women who choose to run. But little research considers whether the media environment may exacerbate this so-called gender gap in political ambition. In this project, I test whether exposure to news stories that emphasize the importance of candidates’ policy expertise and public speaking ability make women less interested in running for office. This hypothesis arises from previous research that finds women often view themselves as less qualified for political office than similarly qualified men. To test the hypothesis, I draw on an original survey experiment conducted in early 2018 with a national sample of adults and a sample of college students. If the media play a role in reinforcing misperceptions that women lack the qualifications to run for office, that may help explain the persistence of gender inequality in the American political institutions.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Media, Gender inequality
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  47. The Explanatory Role of Mechanisms in Providing Successful Medical Treatment [Download]

    Title: The Explanatory Role of Mechanisms in Providing Successful Medical Treatment
    Author: Geoca, Alexandra
    Description: How much must be known about a disease, the human body, and the relationships between the two in order to treat that disease successfully? One of the major debates in the philosophy of biology is centered on the understanding of scientific processes and how those processes can be explained when they occur across different levels in the body. This poster will argue that the best way to provide a medical explanation that will lead to successful treatment is through the use of a mechanistic model. This will be presented through two examples, the first of which is an example that emphasizes the importance of mechanisms in developing new and successful treatments for cancer. The second example tells a story of how failing to understand the mechanism of biointeraction for the drug Thalidomide led to dangerous consequences. This poster will then present the most fitting mechanistic theory to provide an adequate medical explanation. This theory has been developed by Carl Craver, and though he did not intend it to be used as a medical explanation it provides the necessary scaffolding for a sufficient medical explanation that is likely to lead to more successful treatments.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Medical treatment, Biology, Philosophy, Disease, Mechanisms
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  48. Community Partners Facilitate Access to Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender-Diverse People [Download]

    Title: Community Partners Facilitate Access to Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender-Diverse People
    Author: Giegerich, Alyssa
    Description: BACKGROUND: Voice training for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals is in demand, yet is often inaccessible- especially for individuals of minority race or socioeconomic status. To reduce the identified access barriers of cost, availability, and general knowledge of services, clinicians at the GW Speech and Hearing Center partnered with Whitman Walker Health to pilot a program to help people in the urban Washington DC area feminize their voice and communication. METHOD: A 3-hour Saturday afternoon “Voice Feminization” workshop was held at a local safe-space for LGBTQ community members. Nine transgender women and gender non-conforming individuals (all assigned male at birth) learned and practiced adjusting their voice characteristics of pitch, resonance/quality, and intonation in small groups lead by six graduate speech-language pathology clinicians and two licensed speech-language pathologists. Outcome measures included changes (pre-workshop vs. post-workshop) in voice fundamental frequency (pitch), the most salient gender-marker of voice, and post-workshop participant ratings of their voice and the workshop program. Each participant rated the following on a 5 point likert scale: overall workshop, structure of the workshop, content of the workshop, effectiveness of the training, pleasantness/helpfulness of staff, day and time of workshop, length of workshop, do you feel you made progress. Seven of the participants were available for follow-up via phone interview. RESULTS: Speaking pitch (mean fundamental frequency) increased (i.e., feminized) after the workshop by a mean of 2.84ST (SD = 3.71ST, Range = 0.9 – 4.61ST). Changes in intonation, measured by F0 range during speech, varied by individual: 5 increased and 3 deceased their range. All participants felt they made progress during the workshop, rating progress as “very good” on the post-workshop survey (M = 4.11, SD = 1.05). For program evaluation, all areas on the survey were rated as “good” (3) or better on the 1-5 scale. Participants viewed the overall workshop to be “very good” with a mean rating of 4.22 (SD=.67, n=9). Also with mean ratings of 4.22 were content of the workshop, effectiveness of training, and day/time of workshop. Category with highest mean rating (4.89) was pleasantness/helpfulness of staff. Comments indicating desire for a longer workshop were consistent with lowest mean ratings being for structure of the workshop (3.65) and length of workshop (3.22). Comments gathered from participants two weeks after the workshop via follow-up phone calls were consistent with post-workshop data. Generally, participants felt the need to practice their more feminized voice, particularly with a focus on resonance. DISCUSSION: Due to the high ratings of the overall workshop, and quantitative improvement, it is recommended that similar workshops be created with time modifications to benefit the target population and their experience with voice feminization.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Speech and Hearing Sciences, Gender studies, Transgender, Communication, LGBTQ
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  49. HIV Infected Cells Have Depolarized Membrane Potentials and Increased Intracellular Calcium Levels [Download]

    Title: HIV Infected Cells Have Depolarized Membrane Potentials and Increased Intracellular Calcium Levels
    Author: Goydos, Ryan
    Description: Introduction/Background: Ion distribution between the extracellular, cytoplasmic, and organellar spaces creates membrane potentials which drive many of life’s processes. This bioelectric membrane potential, driven by ion channel and pump activity, can be harnessed to allow or prevent entry of signaling mediators like Ca2+ into the cytoplasm. Several HIV proteins (Vpu, Env, Vpr, and Nef) have been reported to function as ion channels or alter ion channel activity. This activity likely influences cell fate including activation and apoptosis. Hypothesis: HIV depolarizes the plasma membrane and alters intracellular calcium levels. Changing the polarization of the plasma membrane would alter the levels of HIV infection. Methods: HIV infected cells were identified using a broadly neutralizing anti-Env antibody (PG9) conjugated to AlexaFluor-647. Membrane potential measurements were done by flow cytometry using the DiBAC4(3) dye as previously reported. Intracellular Ca2+ measurements were also done by flow cytometry using the Fluo-4 dye. Ionomycin and PMA were used to show the contrast in intracellular Ca2+ levels between infected and uninfected cells. To assess the effects of membrane potential changes on HIV replication, 200μM diazoxide was added to cells during infections. Results: HIV infected cells consistently had depolarized membrane potentials in both primary cells and cell lines. When cells were cultured with a depolarizing agent, diazoxide, there was an increase in HIV-infected cells. This membrane depolarization was accompanied by an increased resting level of intracellular Ca2+ in infected cells. Following addition of ionomycin, there was a drastic difference in Ca2+ flow between uninfected and HIV-infected cells. In uninfected cells, the addition of ionomycin induced an influx of Ca2+ while PMA had little effect. In contrast, both ionomycin and PMA induced a large efflux of Ca2+ from HIV infected cells.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, HIV, Microbiology, Immunology, Tropical medicine
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  50. Art-Making for Teachers: How Can Art Therapy Combat Teacher Burnout? [Download]

    Title: Art-Making for Teachers: How Can Art Therapy Combat Teacher Burnout?
    Author: Hagemeir, Christina
    Description: Objective: Human services professionals have a higher rate of burnout than most occupations. For teachers, exhaustion and stress are exasperated by increases class sizes and reduced budgets. High rates of teacher burnout can lead to high teacher turnover and early retirement rates, as well ass, lower levels of behavioral tolerance in the classroom. Since art therapy can be used to help relieve stress and foster positive communication, it may be especially helpful in promoting teachers’ sense of wellness and expressing the burdens of teaching. Method: A one-time workshop conducted with a group of teachers in a Christian school in the Midwest U.S. incorporated art therapy protocols to investigate the benefits of art making. The teachers created 1) art about the upcoming school year and 2) response art to another participant’s artwork. Participants completed a questionnaire about their process for creating each piece of artwork and joined a discussion about the overall process. Findings: The workshop explored feelings of isolation and stress, along with feelings of relief and empathy for others experiencing similar feelings as evidence by the themes that arose in the art, questionnaires, and discussions. Thematic analysis revealed six major themes throughout the original and response artwork: stress responsibility to educate, empathy, acknowledging differences, relying on God, and support. Implications: This workshop demonstrated the effectiveness of art making for increasing support amongst teachers and fostering communication about problems in the school. Participants felt more comfortable conveying their concerns through artwork. In addition, participants felt heard and supported as fellow teachers responded to their concerns and needs visually. The results of this workshop show that art making infused with art therapy protocols can be an effective tool for helping teachers express concerns and receive support as a way to help combat burnout.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Art therapy, Psychology, Education, Visual arts, Psychotherapy
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  51. Breast Cancer Detection Using Transfer Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks [Download]

    Title: Breast Cancer Detection Using Transfer Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks
    Author: Guan, Shuyue
    Description: Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in mammography can improve treatment outcomes for breast cancer and provide greater survival times for patients. For breast cancer detection, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) can extract features from mammographic images automatically and then do classification. To train the CNN from scratch, however, requires a large number of labeled images. Such a requirement often is infeasible for some kinds of medical image data such as mammographic tumor images. A promising solution is to extract features by reusing a pretrained CNN model that has been trained by very large image datasets from other fields; alternatively, we could re-train (fine-tune) such a model using a limited number of labeled medical images. This approach is also called transfer learning. In this study, we applied the pre-trained VGG-16 model to extract features from input mammographic images and used those features to train a Neural Network (NN)-classifier. We firstly downloaded mammographic images from the DDSM database and cropped the Regions of Interest (ROIs) of given abnormal areas as ground-truth information. We used the ROIs instead of the entire images to train neural networks. The structure of CNN in transfer learning was the combination of the 13 convolutional layers in pre-trained VGG16 model with a simple full-connected (FC) layer. The weights in the FC layer were randomly initialized and updated by training; other weights were not changed. We used 1300 abnormal ROIs and 1300 normal ROIs. All ROIs were randomly selected and shuffled in class sets. After 100 epochs, the average of 10-fold cross validation accuracy converged at about 0.905 for abnormal vs. normal classifications on mammograms, with no obvious overfitting. Our best model could reach 0.950 accuracy for the abnormal vs. normal case, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.96. This study shows that applying transfer learning in CNN can detect breast cancer from a mammogram, and that training a NN-classifier by feature extraction is a feasible method in transfer learning. Our research is important because it provides a novel technique to improve mammographic detection. Compared with other studies in this field, this study used a different pre-trained model, simpler classification architecture, and classifier, and used more images (2600), and performed at least as well.
    Keywords: Biomedical engineering, Breast cancer, Mammography, Computer-aided diagnosis, Convolutional Neural Network, Research Days 2018
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  52. Constructing the South China Sea A Pentadic Analysis of American Narratives, 2009-2016 [Download]

    Title: Constructing the South China Sea A Pentadic Analysis of American Narratives, 2009-2016
    Author: Haver, Zachery
    Description: Though the South China Sea (SCS) territorial disputes have attracted much attention in the United States, there is a dearth of scholarly research on their discursive construction. Americans clearly care about the SCS, but nobody has investigated how, when, or why particular American narratives emerged and evolved. Given this research gap, this article develops a longitudinal form of Kenneth Burke’s pentadic analysis to study American narratives of the SCS. Examining editorials from the New York Times and Wall Street Journal from 2009 to 2016, this article finds that elements of a dominant narrative emerged in 2014 in response to both material and discursive developments. This article then demonstrates the manner in which this dominant narrative has delimited the scope of legitimate U.S. policy options.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, South China Sea, U.S. foreign policy, U.S.-China relations, China
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  53. Development of a Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Sustainable Water Purification [Download]

    Title: Development of a Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Sustainable Water Purification
    Author: Choi, Yoon Sil
    Description: As lack of access to clean drinking water continues to be a problem, especially in rural areas and developing countries, the challenge of finding innovative ways to treat drinking water in secluded areas with few resources must be met. Additionally, the presence of persistent and emerging organic micropollutants and pathogens further challenges the safety of treated water. A potential solution is the solar-energy-enabled photocatalysis, a sustainable advanced oxidation process that can destruct organic micropollutants and inactive pathogens. Because operating a photocatalytic reactor can be solely dependent on renewable solar energy, the process is sustainable and can be used in areas where electricity and chemicals are not readily accessible. The purpose of this research project is to develop a solar photocatalytic reactor for sustainable water purification. Among various types of photoreactor designs, the compound parabolic collector (CPC) design was chosen due to its capability to collect high solar radiation at any angle of acceptance, its ability to operate on industrial scale applications, and its low fabrication, operation, and maintenance costs. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts were loaded on glass beads, and used for the photoreactor. The effectiveness of the photocatalyst for the degradation of pollutants was tested, by using methyl orange as a model contaminant under ultraviolet light irradiation. Based on the results, the photocatalytic beads were effective in degrading the methyl orange. In addition to the development of the photocatalyst, we applied 3D printing to fabricate a solar reflector in the CPC. Future work on this project will include the use of another promising yet underexplored photocatalyst, graphitic carbon nitride, which can harvest more visible sunlight to enhance photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the type, geometry, and operational parameters of the reactor will be tested in order to optimize reactor performance. Overall, the goal of the project is to find the optimum CPC design and promote the practical application of solar photocatalytic water treatment technology for rural areas and developing countries. The project has the potential for broad impact, as it can be adapted for many locations and situations.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Water purification, Photocatalysis, Sustainability
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  54. Photorhabus asymbiotica Quorum Sensing Gene PauR may also Participate in Insect Cell Sensing [Download]

    Title: Photorhabus asymbiotica Quorum Sensing Gene PauR may also Participate in Insect Cell Sensing
    Author: Heryanto, Christa
    Description: Rationale. Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that efficiently infects both insects and humans (skin ulcer). Apart from apoptosis induction and septicemia by variety of toxin effectors, quorum sensing/interbacterial communication mediated by PauR gene is yet another mechanism recently linked to its virulence. To thrive in either host, Pa regulates its gene expression leading to metabolic shift between 30°C (insect) and 37°C (human). This project attempts to explore the involvement of PauR in P. asymbiotica pathogenicity. Here, we focus on the effect of Pa growing temperatures on the PauR gene expression in the presence or absence of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Methods. Estimation of S2 cell viability is aimed at confirming the kill efficiency of Pa grown at 30°C and 37°C. We firstly seeded 12-well plate with S2 cells and challenged them with 30°C-Pa or 37°C-Pa the following day. All incubation after infection was at 30°C. We measured S2 cell viability by Trypan Blue counting and determined the time points at which relative viability reaches 90%, 50%, and 10%. qRT-PCR was subsequently performed to estimate PauR gene expression. We also measured the level of pau00087, a Pa gene with putative role in temperature and environment sensing, to contrast the profile of the quorum sensing gene. Results. Pa grown at 30°C killed S2 cells faster than 37°C-Pa, with 50% relative viability reached at 4hr and 8hr, and 10% relative viability at 6hr and 10hr, respectively. Notably, PauR was elevated upon contact with S2 cells, compared to medium-only control, then plummeted to control level after 2hr. In contrast to immediate spike of pau00087 originating from 37°C-Pa, its 30°C-Pa counterpart was only elevated after 2hr incubation in S2 cells. Conclusion. P. asymbiotica grown at 30°C is more pathogenic to insect cells compared to those grown at 37°C. However, growing temperature is not involved in regulating PauR response in pathogenicity. In contrast, pau00087 of 37°C-Pa is more sensitive to the presence of S2 cells and temperature change than 30°C-Pa counterpart. Nevertheless, quorum sensing gene PauR is consistently and significantly upregulated upon contact with insect cells, which eludes us to suspect a second role of PauR in host cell detection.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Biology, Insect studies, Genetic studies, Molecular biology
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  55. Historic East Los Angeles: A Catalyst for Social Movements & Community Empowerment [Download]

    Title: Historic East Los Angeles: A Catalyst for Social Movements & Community Empowerment
    Author: Christerson, Carley
    Description: In 1939, a Home Owner’s Loan Corporation assessment of East Los Angeles repugnantly proclaimed the neighborhood “a ‘melting pot’…honeycombed with diverse and subversive racial elements.” These neighborhoods defined as “subversive” by the dominant white-owned institutions of the 1930s have not only been shelters for the city’s racial, ethnic, and religious minorities, but have helped shape some of the most enduring multicultural communities and powerful social movements of the twentieth century. My research explores how marginalized communities in East Los Angeles throughout their history have created movements for social change and empowerment. Specifically, my research asks “What factors enabled East L.A. to become one of the most powerful incubators of social movements in American history?” By examining primary source documents including photographs, personal narratives and maps as well as secondary source historical materials, my findings identify the historical factors in East L.A. that led to the formation of powerful social movements for liberation and equality that changed the American social landscape. My research consists of three case studies that highlight marginalized ethnic communities in East L.A., the first of which examines how East L.A.’s Jewish community in the early 20th century became a national center for resisting anti-Semitism. Local Jewish inhabitants in turn formed coalitions with their Japanese-American and Chicanx neighbors to resist popular and institutionalized racism. The second case study addresses Japanese-American East Angelenos and their resistance to discrimination in access to health care, as well as their collective response to the devastating effects of Japanese Internment during World War II. This legacy of community empowerment continued as the American Chicanx rights movement grew out of the activist organizations of East L.A. in the 1960s and 1970s, as outlined in my third case study. My findings conclude that the unique history of East Los Angeles provides insights into the social conditions that produce liberation movements powerful enough to bring about social change on a national and international scale. The history of East L.A. suggests that the urban factors producing powerful social movements are: 1) neighborhood density, 2) a concentration of marginalized racial/ethnic groups with common experiences of institutional racism, 3) strong neighborhood institutions (i.e. businesses, religious institutions, community-based self-help organizations), 4) multiethnic/multiracial cooperation, and 5) space for artistic and cultural expression. Understanding how these conditions lead to effective social movements sheds light on how marginalized communities can transform the urban spaces that they occupy into sites of empowerment.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Social movements, East Los Angeles
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  56. Detector Development for MUSE [Download]

    Title: Detector Development for MUSE
    Author: Hirschman, Jack
    Description: Until recently, it was thought that the proton radius was known with an uncertainty of 1%. However, experiments at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) involving muonic hydrogen yielded a radius 4% smaller with an uncertainty of .1%, a 7.9σ inconsistency. This problem of properly measuring the radius now requires new and different measurements. The MUon proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE), carried-out at PSI, Switzerland, will thus be the first to utilize elastic muon proton scattering with sufficient precision to address the Proton Radius Puzzle: incompatible measurements of the radius of the proton from electron-based and muon-based measurements. This project involves the integration of Straw Tube Tracking (STT) and Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors into MUSE. STT development takes place at Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) while SiPM development takes place at PSI. The goal of my work was to establish an adjustable gas mixing system for STT detectors, become more familiar with the SiPM detectors, test new frames for detector assembly, and help with various other projects related to SiPMs and data readout. The results of this work are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Physics, Proton radius measurement
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  57. Perinatal Depression Screening Rates at an Urban OBGYN Clinic [Download]

    Title: Perinatal Depression Screening Rates at an Urban OBGYN Clinic
    Author: Campos, Paula Cortes
    Description: Perinatal depression (PD) is a significant public health problem with negative consequences for pregnant women, mothers, and families. Given that one of the main risk factors for PD is depression that occurs during pregnancy (Field, 2011), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2015) recommends pregnant women be screened for depression at least once in both the prenatal and postpartum periods. In 2016, an obstetrics clinic in Washington, D.C. implemented universal screening for PD, in which women are screened at their first prenatal appointment (T1), in their third trimester (T2), and at 6 weeks postpartum (T3). T3 was previously incorporated into visits at this clinic since 2014. This study’s goal is to examine the rates of PD screening since the inception of the clinic’s new prenatal screening procedure. In an ongoing retrospective medical chart review (N=300 at study conclusion), data have been collected from 86 women randomly selected from ~3,000 women seen at the clinic from 7/1/2016 to 6/31/2017. Data include demographics, medical history, and referral information. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Cox et al., 1987) was used to screen for PD, and higher scores indicate more severity of depression symptoms. High risk for PD is based on EPDS scores ≥ 10. The sample was predominantly African-American (45.3%), married (57.0%), high school or college-educated (50.0%), employed (53.5%), and relatively young (M = 30.9 years, SD = 5.89). Of the 86 women, 41.8%, 31.3%, and 51.2% were screened at T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Women reported low depressive symptoms (T1: M = 5.31, SD = 4.30; T2: M = 5.11, SD = 3.98; and T3: M = 4.61, SD = 3.76). Women meeting high risk criteria for PD were 11.1%, 7.4%, and 11.4% at T1-T3 respectively. Preliminary results suggest that screening for PD is not yet “universal” in this urban obstetrics setting. Less than half of the women were screened at all three time points, and only 1/3rd of all women were screened during the second trimester of pregnancy. Additional analyses of the complete dataset (N=300, anticipated by conference time) will be conducted to assess selected risk factors (e.g., history of mental illness) and current psychiatric treatment to determine whether women screened are more likely to have particular risk factors and/or receive treatment. Results from this study will enable the obstetrics program to evaluate the effectiveness of their new perinatal screening procedures and make changes to improve their system.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Prenatal depression, Public health, Obstetrics
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  58. Alexithymia and Psychological Defenses: A Meta-Analysis [Download]

    Title: Alexithymia and Psychological Defenses: A Meta-Analysis
    Author: Huffstickler, Madeline A.
    Description: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the association between alexithymia and psychological defensiveness, and to assess the influence of the psychological maturity reflected in the defense type indexed by each effect size included in the analyses. An exhaustive search of the literature yielded a total sample of 22 studies that contributed 60 independent effect sizes. Analyses using both fixed-effects and random-effects models obtained moderate positive associations between alexithymia and overall defensiveness (rs = .22; .20) as well as between alexithymia and neurotic defenses (rs = .33; .30). A strong positive association was obtained between alexithymia and immature defenses (rs = .55; .54); a moderate negative association was observed between alexithymia and mature defenses (rs = -.34; -.30). These findings held when effect sizes indexing the three defense styles corresponding to maturity level were analyzed separately. Moderator analyses indicated that both participant diagnostic classification and defense style maturity influenced the magnitude of the effect between alexithymia and defensiveness. These findings are consistent with previous literature in which alexithymia is thought to involve defensive operations that reflect use of archaic psychological processes.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychotherapy, Alexithymia
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  59. “Baby You Light Up My World Like Nobody Else”: Analyzing Cultural Authenticity, Gender Bias, and Adolescent Development through One Direction and Their Fans [Download]

    Title: “Baby You Light Up My World Like Nobody Else”: Analyzing Cultural Authenticity, Gender Bias, and Adolescent Development through One Direction and Their Fans
    Author: Cohn, Michelle
    Description: In 2010, Harry Styles, Zayn Malik, Niall Horan, Liam Payne, and Louis Tomlinson individually auditioned for one of the UK’s most popular talent-search television shows, The X-Factor. The boys were grouped together during the show’s run, and while they placed third in the finale, their success after the show skyrocketed. They headlined four tours, sold over 70 million records, and won sixteen Billboard music awards. One Direction was one of the most successful bands in the post-rock era, yet mainstream music and arts publications suggest they are culturally inauthentic, superficial, and a marketing ploy rather than a legitimate artistic endeavor. My project challenges these assumptions, arguing instead that One Direction is culturally, and academically, relevant and influential. By analyzing the relationship adolescent girl fans have with the band, or as fan studies scholar Henry Jenkins says, “how fans are using media texts and what new meanings they [are] creating,” this essay strives to showcase how One Direction plays a meaningful role in both personal and communal development. Contrasting this evidence with examples of cultural critiques of One Direction, this essay also analyzes how a devaluation of girls’ experiences and biases against girls in fandoms contribute to ideas about One Direction’s inauthenticity. By privileging the perspective of the girl fans, this essay focuses on legitimizing girls’ personal development, and continuing the scholarship on fan relationships through a contemporary example.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Communal development, Fandoms
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  60. A Content Analysis of the News Media Portrayal of the Planned Parenthood and Center for Medical Progress Videos [Download]

    Title: A Content Analysis of the News Media Portrayal of the Planned Parenthood and Center for Medical Progress Videos
    Author: Creinin, Ilana
    Description: Abortion is a highly contentious political issue in the United States, yet nearly one in four women will seek abortion care by age 45 (Jones and Jerman, 2017). On July 14, 2015, the Center for Medical Progress (CMP), an anti-choice organization, released a video claiming that Planned Parenthood (PP) illegally procured and sold fetal tissue for profit. This video was proven to be deceptively edited and opened the floodgates for a series of events to follow. Using coding software, MaxQDA, I will perform a content analysis on a sample of 281 news articles from network news, cable news, print media and radio that cover events important to the key developments, including video releases, lawsuits, indictments, a shooting at a PP clinic, a change in the tissue reimbursement policy, and Congressional bills to eliminate funding from PP. The research will demonstrate that the media overwhelmingly used words that made ambiguous judgments or moral evaluations about the truth-value of the videos rather than using words that provided a clear and accurate judgment or moral evaluation. Further, the research will note the number of times the removal of government or state funds from PP is referenced, the number of times the 2016 Presidential election is mentioned in conjunction with the videos, and how PP and CMP are described as organizations by the media. I will compare my findings to a previous study (Dreier & Martin, 2010) about another community organization, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) during the 2008 election season, to see if the media fell into a similar reporting pattern of inaccurately describing the truth-value of the videos. This study will provide insight into media framing theory and how the media frames issues associated with women’s health.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Planned Parenthood, Media
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  61. Uncovering Ligand-Receptors Interactions in Butterfly Wings: How WntA and Frizzled2 Work Together to Create Complex Patterns [Download]

    Title: Uncovering Ligand-Receptors Interactions in Butterfly Wings: How WntA and Frizzled2 Work Together to Create Complex Patterns
    Author: Hermina-Pérez, José Juan
    Description: Lepidoptera wings are a promising model system for the study of the genetic basis for pattern formation. Previous research on the non-traditional model organism Vanessa cardui has shown how CRISPR/CAS9 mediated mutagenesis can reveal how a single gene, i.e. WntA, is responsible for complex morphological patterning. Moreover, the WntA signaling ligand gene has been shown to have an array of different phenotypic effects across a number of butterfly species. However, no insights on the receptor gene for this signaling molecule have been formally established for the Vanessa cardui, commonly known as the Painted Lady butterfly. The scientific literature suggests that there are a variety of developmental processes that require a combination of Wnt ligands and receptors to achieve complex results. Here, we attempt to elucidate the color patterning roles of a Frizzled family receptor frizzled-2 (fz2). In this project, we produced gene knockouts of fz2 and examined the genotypic-phenotypic contrast and/or similarities to wild types, as well as WntA mutants. The use of imaging and statistical analysis of the areas of the fz2 mutant’s eyespots, chevrons, as well as other regions provide a more quantitative approach to the data. This information will be important for highlighting the major and/or subtle differences between wing patterning in WntA and fz2 mutants. The results of this study support how CRISPR/CAS9 continues to be feasible genetic editing technique in Lepidoptera. Ultimately, this project provides a further understanding of the evolutionary and developmental characteristics of butterfly wing formation.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Biological science, Butterfly wing development, Morphological patterning, Genetic science
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  62. Recognizing Images of Eating Disorders in Social Media [Download]

    Title: Recognizing Images of Eating Disorders in Social Media
    Author: Counts, Samsara
    Description: Eating disorders (ED) are pervasive and do not discriminate based on race, religion, gender, or socioeconomic status. Comorbidities include anxiety, depression, substance abuse, self injurious behaviors, and history of trauma. ED are often a lifelong struggle, with approximately ⅔ of patients never achieving a full and sustained remission. Exposure to media expressing “the thin ideal” can be triggering to individuals with ED as well as those at risk for developing them. Social media is rife with these triggers. Concurrent with the rise of social media, individuals with ED have created communities in which they support one another in the dangerous pursuit of this illness' goal: to be “thin enough.” Websites promoting anorexia (pro-ana) and ED as lifestyle choices valorize acting on ED symptoms. Such sites teach those suffering or at risk from ED how to act on the illness and support them in doing so, putting them at risk for severe health complications. The impact of images in this community far exceeds that of other communities surrounding physical and mental health issues. Therefore, it is essential that clinicians and family members be able to identify websites containing images associated with the promotion of ED to prevent exposure to these triggers. This research aims to automatically detect such triggering material, with the ultimate goal of designing parental and clinical controls. We report on a proof of concept, machine learning approach to identify pro-ana content, trained on example data from online social media searches. The training data was chosen to compare pro-ana content with other content similar in demographics and photographic style, composed of the hashtag-based categories #proana, #selfie, #ootd, and #greek. We randomly chose 20% of these images as test data and train the Resnet Deep Learning neural network to classify the remaining images. On test data this gives 81% classification accuracy—a significant improvement over chance (25%). These proof of concept results suggest that it is feasible to automatically detect social media sources with triggering material, informing the creation of tools that can assist clinicians and family members to improve health outcomes. We used the classifier to make a web application that assesses how pro-ana a social media user’s content is. The tool, designed for clinicians, allows them to enter a social media username and then gives an analysis of that user’s online presence, classifying its content. The tool also displays a hashtag similarity map showing trending hashtags closely related to #proana.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Social media, Eating disorders
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  63. Starvation-Induced L1 Arrest Affects Fecundity of Subsequent Generation in the Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditisbacteriophora: A Cautionary Tale [Download]

    Title: Starvation-Induced L1 Arrest Affects Fecundity of Subsequent Generation in the Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditisbacteriophora: A Cautionary Tale
    Author: Iqbal, Zahra
    Description: Arrested development is an important feature in the life cycle of nematodes, allowing survival for prolonged periods in adverse environments. Within parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes, an arrested third stage larvae (L3) is common in the life cycle, and may be facultative or obligate. In the free-living, model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a dormant first larval stage (L1) also develops in response to starvation. This L1 arrest has also been demonstrated in hookworms and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. While maintenance of an L1 arrest stage over evolutionary time in hookworm is necessary due to the harsh environments encountered by the free-living L1, dormant L1 are presumptively non-adaptive to H. bacteriophora. In contrast to C. elegans and hookworms, H. bacteriophora spends all but a single life cycle stage (the L3) within the highly nutritive environment of an insect host. Therefore, despite an apparent lack of need, L1 arrest remains conserved in H. bacteriophora, suggesting a potential function beyond ensuring survival under adverse conditions. To investigate this phenomenon, we characterized the effect of starvation and L1 arrest on fecundity of subsequent generations. H. bacteriophora embryos harvested from hermaphroditic adults were plated in the presence or 24-hour absence of their bacterial food source, Photorhabdus luminescens. Following re-feeding, the starved/re-fed and never starved L1 populations were observed, as were their offspring (F1) and the subsequent generation (F2), for any changes in fecundity, development, and fitness. The starved population demonstrated a 67% reduction in egg-laying, as well as a reduction in total F1 offspring produced compared to the control. Both trends continued in the subsequent F2 generation. While a reduction in F1 egg-laying was observed, the hatch rate for starved/re-fed nematodes was higher (44%). This suggests that starvation exerts long term, multigenerational effects on reproduction in H. bacteriophora. We also asked whether an extended period of starvation-induced L1 arrest associated with cryopreservation affected subsequent fecundity in recovered worms. A decrease in total life span and reproductive capacity of previously cryopreserved L1 versus controls was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that L1 arrest provides a method not only for surviving hard environmental conditions, but also for determining developmental and reproductive responses to environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Psychology, Arrested development, Starvation
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  64. Formalizing Through Finance: A Case Study with UNICS [Download]

    Title: Formalizing Through Finance: A Case Study with UNICS
    Author: Kellenberger, Leah
    Description: This paper seeks to analyze the microfinance industry in Yaoundé, Cameroon through the lens of the microfinance institution Unity Co-operative Society (UNICS). The main question guiding this study deals with whether or not UNICS is encouraging a shift to the formal sector through their work with business people. Other questions relating to repayment rates and subsequent economic development also remain pertinent to the information found. Working mostly in the Credit Department at the UNICS Yaoundé Marche Central Branch and with microfinance and economics experts in the area, data was collected through interviews and fieldwork conducted regarding the former questions. In total, it is found that UNICS and microfinance institutions as a whole, seek to encourage formal sector growth through working with business people in the informal and their desire to work with mainly formal sector business people, in some customers causing a shift from the informal to the formal sector. Repayment rates however do not determine the success of any aspect of a customer’s business or encouragement from institutions. And overall, while microfinance does contribute to socioeconomic growth, it is found that microfinance has deviated from its original goal of helping the poor and with the poor being left behind, it is hard for there to be real economic development.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, Finance, UNICS, Economics, Credit, Business
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  65. Faith and Secular Morality in Iris Murdoch’s The Time of the Angels (1966) [Download]

    Title: Faith and Secular Morality in Iris Murdoch’s The Time of the Angels (1966)
    Author: Khalid, Farisa
    Description: “Could there be a good religious way of life without supernatural beliefs?” Iris Murdoch poses this question to her readers in her philosophic treatise, The Sovereignty of Good (1970). Can individuals be moral citizens without relying on the idea of God? Murdoch’s theories into the nature of morality and rationality were fitting for her historical moment: postwar Britain haunted by the trauma of the Blitz and facing the Cold War threat of nuclear annihilation. In her tenth novel, The Time of the Angels (1966), Murdoch explores the idea of institutionalized religion within a quasi-dystopian world. Carel Fisher, the rector of a bombed-out Christopher Wren-designed church in late 1940s London, suffers from spiritual doubts. His anxiety is manifested in a strange kind of agoraphobia, where he forces himself and his small family to live in isolation. Marcus Fisher, Carel’s younger brother, a philosopher and academic, is writing a treatise on the benefits of atheism. Through the spiritual and emotional dilemmas of the Fisher brothers, Murdoch examines the nature of postwar disillusionment with organized religion. One of the key characters in the novel is Eugene Peshkov, a Russian refugee who is Carel’s handyman. Much of the action of the novel centers around Peshkov’s family heirloom, a centuries-old Russian icon. Murdoch admired the works of Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov, and her interweaving of Russian characters and themes within her novel enables her to compare both English and Russian cultural attitudes towards religion and art within a Cold War setting. In this paper, I hope to explore how Iris Murdoch contends with ontological and ethical themes within the capacious artform of the novel. Is mysticism a necessary prerequisite for the cultivation of moral imperatives? Did Britain’s diminished place within a postwar geopolitical order contribute to a gradual erosion of faith within the Anglican Church, or to the reevaluation of a new kind of belief-system?
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, English literature, Philosophy, Postwar Britain
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  66. Beyond Football and Basketball: High School and College Sports Participation, Socioeconomic Background, and College Selectivity [Download]

    Title: Beyond Football and Basketball: High School and College Sports Participation, Socioeconomic Background, and College Selectivity
    Author: Davis, Leanne
    Description: Research suggests that participation in high school organized extracurricular activities is strongly associated with social class, and that participation will also influence postsecondary plans. Drawing mainly on cultural capital theory, the debate has either focused on the associations between social class and activity participation, or the role that cultural orientations play in extracurricular participation. The purpose of this correlational study is to examine the relationship between socioeconomic background and college matriculation for high school athletes who are involved in non-revenue generating sports (i.e. not football or basketball) using data from the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS:2002). This analysis will examine intercollegiate athletic participation at two levels of college attainment: the first level will look at any four-year college or university; the second stage will look at athletes at the most elite or selective institutions. For both institutional groups, characteristics such as socioeconomic status, gender, participation in varsity high-school sports and outside sports training will be analyzed. Data analysis will begin on March 1, 2018. Conclusion based on this study and recommendations for future research are made.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Higher education, Socioeconomics, College sports
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  67. Annotating the myo Gene on the D. takahashii Dot Chromosome [Download]

    Title: Annotating the myo Gene on the D. takahashii Dot Chromosome
    Author: Fain, Audra
    Description: Drosophila melanogaster has been widely studied and provides scientists with a fully mapped genome and extensive information for genetic studies. There is a small fourth chromosome, also called the “dot chromosome” on D. melanogaster that is composed of tightly wound DNA regions which are transcriptionally active despite their condensed form. This chromosome is an interesting case study for genome evolution and has spurred the interest of the Genome Education Partnership (GEP), a national educational and research collaborative studying genome evolution within the Drosophila lineage. In BISC 2208 Genetics Laboratory, I compared the myo gene found on the dot chromosome of D. melanogaster with that of a related species, D. takahashii. Using data from the UCSC Genome Browser and BLAST technology, I compared the sequence of the myo gene in D. melanogaster to the analogous contig in D. takahashii and annotated the expected intronic and exonic regions, as well as the start and stop sites. While the function of the myo gene has not been experimentally found, FlyBase predictions estimate it to be related to growth factors and their transformation for receptor binding and cytokine activity. The myo gene showed an overall similarity of 81.8% between the two species, showing that there has been some evolution of the gene between D. melanogaster and D. takahashii. While there is still an overall conservation of gene structure, this is a lower percentage than expected because genes containing important cellular function are typically widely conserved between lineages. Overall, the annotation of different genes on the dot chromosome and their evolution between species will provide valuable insight for GEP partners as they continue to explore the unique patterns on the Drosophila dot chromosome.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Biological sciences, Genome mapping, Genetic studies
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  68. Real Time Shape Reconstruction for Near Earth Asteroid Landing [Download]

    Title: Real Time Shape Reconstruction for Near Earth Asteroid Landing
    Author: Kulumani, Shanker
    Description: Small solar system bodies, such as asteroids and comets, are of significant interest to the scientific community. These small bodies offer great insight into the early formation of the solar system. Of particular interest are those near-Earth asteroids (NEA) which inhabit heliocentric orbits in the vicinity of the Earth. These easily accessible bodies provide attractive targets to support space industrialization, mining operations, and scientific missions. Furthermore, these asteroids are of keen interest for more practical purposes. The recent meteor explosions in 2002 over Tagish Lake, Canada or over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013 are clear evidence of the risk of asteroid impacts on the Earth. These asteroids, which released an energy equivalent to 5 kt of TNT, are estimated to strike the Earth on average every year [1]. Larger bodies, such as the 60 m object that exploded over Tunguska, Russia in 1908, release the energy equivalent to 10 Mt of TNT and will occur on average every 1000 years. In spite of the significant interest in asteroid deflection, and the extensive research by the community, the operation of spacecraft in their vicinity remains a challenging problem. Research Question In this work, we develop an orbit and landing scheme for spacecraft onto an asteroid. The main objective is to construct the coupled equations of motion of a rigid spacecraft about an asteroid. This accurate dynamic model is then used to derive a nonlinear controller for the tracking of a landing trajectory. In contrast to much of the previous work, we explicitly consider the gravitational coupling between the orbit and attitude dynamics. In addition, we utilize a polyhedron potential model to represent the shape of the asteroid, which results in an exact closed form expression of the gravitational potential field [4, 5]. In order to determine the shape of the asteroid, we model a laser ranging sensor (LIDAR) on a maneuvering spacecraft. The LIDAR is able to provide depth measurements of the surface of the asteroid. Given a set of depth measurements it is possible to compute the shape, and hence gravitational potential of the asteroid. Computing the shape of the asteroid on a continual basis avoids the long delay and computational complexity of current asteroid operations. Furthermore, the updated gravitational model enables a spacecraft to autonomously transition from a mapping orbit directly to landing.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Aerospace engineering, Mechanical engineering, LIDAR, Computational geometry, Asteroid science, Applied science, Near-Earth asteroids
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  69. NGOs and Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from Ecotourism in Indonesia [Download]

    Title: NGOs and Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from Ecotourism in Indonesia
    Author: King, Chloe
    Description: Ecotourism occupies a rare intersection between economic development and environmental conservation. As a result, ecotourism has long been promoted by conservation NGOs attempting to transition communities to more sustainable livelihoods, with varying levels of success. This research project evaluates the factors that contribute to NGOs’ ability to encourage sustainable livelihoods through ecotourism, looking specifically at two emerging ecotourism destinations in Indonesia: Raja Ampat and East Flores. In both locations, NGOs have encouraged communities to avoid destructive practices, such as dynamite fishing or hunting marine megafauna such as manta rays, sharks, and whale sharks. In Raja Ampat, NGOs successfully promoted indigenous conservation practices and community-based ecotourism networks such as homestays to promote more sustainable practices. In contrast, local communities in East Flores still rely on destructive fishing practices, and local NGOs are just beginning to conduct research and stage interventions with these communities in the hope of introducing ecotourism as an alternative livelihood. The questions this research seeks to answer are, “What role do NGOs play in the development of sustainable livelihoods through ecotourism promotion in Indonesia? How can the successful methods utilized in Raja Ampat be applied to development in East Flores?” Data is based on community-based participatory research conducted in Raja Ampat and East Flores over 5 months, including over 100 qualitative interviews, 40 structured surveys, and daily participant observation alongside local communities and NGOs. In analyzing the challenges and successes of NGO strategies in Raja Ampat, the research argues that NGOs in East Flores should apply the framework for best practices utilized by NGOs in Raja Ampat to promote three vital pillars of sustainable development: ecology, equity, and economy. Initial findings indicate that there are three key strategies promoted by NGOs to successfully transition communities to more sustainable livelihoods: 1) enforcement and community policing efforts to reduce illegal fishing; 2) education of target communities and identification of key influential members of society; and 3) long-term endurance of program efforts and development of infrastructure essential to ecotourism initiatives. The research has important implications for our understanding of NGO roles in partnering with communities to encourage the development of sustainable livelihoods, both in Indonesia and globally.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Sustainability, Indonesia, NGOs, Ecotourism, Economic development, International affairs, Environmental conservation
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  70. Video-Level Binocular Single Vision Based on Temporal Coherency Post Processing [Download]

    Title: Video-Level Binocular Single Vision Based on Temporal Coherency Post Processing
    Author: Feng, Mingyue
    Description: To deal with the problem that low-dynamic range (LDR) displays cannot present enough contrast and details, and high-dynamic range (HDR) displays are too expensive for general public use, the image-level binocular tone-mapping framework was proposed in 2012. When extending from this image-level system to a video-level system, however, a new problem-the temporal coherence-must be addressed. As each frame in a video is processed separately and no temporal coherency is taken into account, the results can be quite disturbing for rapidly-varying dynamics in a video. This project proposes a new framework to solve this problem, by integrating the existing image-level framework and the temporal coherency algorithm. The method begins by processing the video analysis operator is processed to calculate two characteristics, key video value and current frame value, of the input HDR video. Then each frame of the HDR video is tone mapped by the photographic tone reproduction operator with a user-defined exposure, and modified by a post-processing operator. The result can be output as the left LDR video of the LDR video pair. Next, the HDR video frames are tone-mapped by the same tone-mapping operator but with a different user-defined exposure, and modified by the post- processing operator to create the right LDR video frames. Each processed right LDR frame and its counterpart left LDR frame are tested by the binocular viewing comfort predictor (BVCP). If this LDR video frame pair cannot pass the BVCP, an iteration that increases or decreases the right exposure will be implemented until a qualified right-frame image can be generated. Finally, in all final right exposures, we find the one that is the nearest to the fixed left exposure, and begin a final iteration to regenerate the right LDR frames and combine them into a video. This video will then be output as the right LDR video of the LDR video pair. In experimental tests for the new proposed framework, the ability of preserving the object perception and the relative levels of brightness are tested. The experimental data show that this proposed new framework can effectively solve the temporal coherency problem and generate binocular LDR videos without disturbing effects.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Electrical engineering, Computer engineering, Binocular Tone-mapping, Temporal coherence
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  71. A Sociological Case for Community Resilience as a Tool to Mitigate the Effects of Natural Disasters [Download]

    Title: A Sociological Case for Community Resilience as a Tool to Mitigate the Effects of Natural Disasters
    Author: Lane, Elizabeth
    Description: We live in a time where extreme weather events pose a persistent threat as they increase in volatility. Those who are hit the hardest by natural disasters are the most socially vulnerable populations, presenting a complex challenge. While we often look to technology to solve today’s problems, we underestimate the capacity of the community. When an area is devastated by a drought, hurricane, or earthquake– how can we maximize the power of the people in order to save lives and reduce harm? The concept of community resilience has become a buzzword in a number of disciplines as a potential means to do so. This kind of resiliency goes beyond the engineering of infrastructure and disaster predictor technologies. It is embedded in the individual as well as the group; considered to be a set of capacities that has the possibility of preparing populations for the unimaginable and establishing networks that can speed recovery and relief. By placing this concept within a Sociological framework, we can identify the social factors at play. Social vulnerabilities that will be identified encapsulate social, economic, and the institutional factors. Through empirical research, ways to leverage adaptive capacities to environmental disasters can be understood. This thesis seeks to illuminate vulnerability as a Sociological phenomenon, and to produce an assessment of so-called community resilience that can be utilized by community stakeholders themselves. In maximizing community resilience, localities take on proactive attitudes to disaster planning and management in a way that can engage structures (government and institutions) as well as agents (individual community members). Resilient communities reap the benefits of boosted community outcomes, particularly among underprivileged populations.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Sociology, Natural disaster, Community
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  72. Building Time Series Model for Wind Power Forecast [Download]

    Title: Building Time Series Model for Wind Power Forecast
    Author: Liu, Jiaying
    Description: With the depletion of unrenewable resources, new concepts of “sustainable development” “environment-friendly” are increasingly popular, which makes the utilization of renewable resources a global focal point. Comparing to the unrenewable resource, wind power, as an example of renewable resource, has several advantages like cost-effectiveness and free-pollution. According to World Wind Energy Association, the entire world wind power was up to 270 billion kilowatts in 2007, which shows the great potential of wind power industry. Naturally, a power prediction model is definitely necessary to better use wind power. Brown (1984) was the first one who applied forecast model in wind power industry. Since then, many mathematicians and statisticians spare no effort in promoting wind power forecast models. Many recent studies have focused on short-term forecasts of wind power and hybrid method However, the importance of time series character of wind power data is not highlighted by most of the previous researchs. We pay more attention to this character and apply time series specific model-ARIMA to forecast wind power. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average model) is a generalization of ARMA (autoregressive moving average model), which is suitable for time series data either to better understand the data or to predict future points in the series (forecasting). ARIMA is usually applied in cases where data show evidence of non-stationarity, where an initial differencing step (corresponding to the "integrated" part of the model) can be applied one or more times to eliminate the non-stationarity. A data series is said to be stationary when its mean, variance, and auto-covariance are all constant, which can be tested by ADF test in R. Considering the intrinsic nonstationary character of wind power, we will apply ARIMA as our model to predict wind power. If wind power can be predicted more accurately, the usage of it will be more effective, which could greatly ease energy pressure faced by human. Our research includes six tasks, data gathering, data pre-processing, data importing and smoothing, model fitting, model examination, and model application. In this process, we build an ARIMA to forecast wind power. Then we apply this model to test whether it is useful to test out-sample data and refit the parameter to find the better model.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Sustainability, Statistics, Renewable resources, Wind power, Environmental research
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  73. Sport as a Catalyst for Peace? The Legacy and Prospects of Inter-Korean Olympic Sport Diplomacy [Download]

    Title: Sport as a Catalyst for Peace? The Legacy and Prospects of Inter-Korean Olympic Sport Diplomacy
    Author: Lee, Bomie
    Description: The 2018 Pyeongchang Olympic Winter Games took place from February 9 to February 25, 2018. This was the first Winter Olympics hosted by South Korea, taking place 30 years after the 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics. If Seoul 1988 was deemed as South Korea's "coming-out party" on the global stage, Pyeongchang 2018 gained attention for not only South Korea's economic and technological prowess, but also for effective sports diplomacy between South and North Korea. Unlike Seoul 1988, in which North Korea boycotted the Games and attempted to create an atmosphere of fear to deter people from attending, Pyeongchang 2018 witnessed a cooperative North Korea and diplomatic breakthroughs. Among the tangible outcomes of these efforts were (1) walking together during the Opening Ceremony, (2) fielding a joint team for women's ice hockey, and (3) hosting a high-level North Korean delegation that included a member of the ruling Kim family. This study attempts to analyze sports diplomacy efforts leading up to, during, and immediately after Pyeongchang 2018. It begins by examining past cases of sports diplomacy between the two Koreas and throughout Asia at large, discussing the different varieties they took the form of and their discernible outcomes. By establishing this foundation of past historical cases, this study seeks to provide clarity on which methods of sports diplomacy have been successful and which have fallen short of expectations. It then proceeds to investigate sports diplomacy during Pyeongchang 2018, bringing together primary sources of news articles, official government statements, and surveys with secondary sources of opinion pieces and think tank publications. The analysis is further supplemented by firsthand research conducted in Pyeongchang, documenting the final match played by the joint women's ice hockey team. Ultimately, the research attests to the importance of symbolism in inter-Korean relations and the effectiveness of sports diplomacy in sustaining the notion of reunification in public discourse. For many reasons, Pyeongchang 2018 stands apart from other cases of sports diplomacy and begets the question of whether this will become more than a temporary relief from years of heightened tension and the beginning to a path toward permanent peace.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, Inter-Korean relations, Sport diplomacy, Korea, International politics, Pyeongchang
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  74. Student Acquisition of Science Skills and Learning Objectives in an Introductory Biology Course [Download]

    Title: Student Acquisition of Science Skills and Learning Objectives in an Introductory Biology Course
    Author: Long, Madison
    Description: One of the main goals of education in biology is to not only teach students what they should know about biology, but how it came to be known; namely, through laboratory (lab) practices. It may be of interest to explore whether these students are connecting these two types of knowledge. The current study examined the responses to two prompts, “What is the purpose of this lab?” and “Name two Science Skills you utilized during this lab and tell how you used them,” given to 10 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory biology laboratory course at The George Washington University. The results showed that around 70% of students knew the purpose of the lab. Furthermore, the two most common Science Skills used were Observing and Analyzing, and most of the responses encoded fell under the category of ‘4’ of the rubric, indicating the highest level of complexity in the response. However, the next most common response fell under the category of ‘2’, demonstrating a marked gap between students who could connect concepts learned in lecture to laboratory practices, and those who could not. More research is needed to explore the reason for this gap and how to shift it in the direction of a category ‘4.’
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Biology, Education, Laboratory science
    Date Uploaded: 04/21/2018
  75. Man-made Radical? Constructing Masculinity in White Nationalist Groups [Download]

    Title: Man-made Radical? Constructing Masculinity in White Nationalist Groups
    Author: Herrle, Amber
    Description: For some men in the rural Midwest, their livelihoods are at risk. The jobs filled by their fathers have long disappeared and the realities they live fall short of the legacies left behind by their grandfathers. Urban flight has left dwindling rural populations to handle the massive economic downturn they’ve experienced over the past 20 years. The multitude of white nationalist and separatist parties emerging out of this context suggests that a large response to these symptoms of trial in the region is not only the racialized separation of populations, but a total return to a certain time in America’s history. Drawing on a series of semi-structured, open ended interviews with white nationalists in the United States, this work seeks to understand the formation and function of masculinity in white nationalist groups in the rural Midwest. In describing this relationship, it examines the potential implications of masculine ideals and conceptions of manhood present in American society today; in doing so this work interrogates the ways that these constructions interact with policy and society in the US. In addition to interviews with group members, this work examines the literature created and utilized by white nationalist groups, their propaganda, and online forum interactions as well as interviews with white nationalists. By demonstrating that white nationalists may be motivated by a desire to fulfill societal expectations around masculinity and that these men often attach themselves to the groups because of the personal achievement the group provides, the research offers insights for theorists seeking to better understand the process through which individuals adopt extremist views and actions. The findings are simultaneously relevant for policy, as they suggest that to successfully prevent radicalization and counter extremism, policy initiatives must address these individuals’ desire to be seen, and see themselves, as masculine.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, White nationalism, Masculinity, United States
    Date Uploaded: 04/19/2018
  76. The George Washington University Undergraduate Review, Volume 1, Spring 2018 [Download]

    Title: The George Washington University Undergraduate Review, Volume 1, Spring 2018
    Author: GW Undergraduate Review
    Description: Established in 2016, the GW Undergraduate Review (GWUR) is the premier publication of research from undergraduate students at the George Washington University. Our mission is to promote undergraduate research on GW’s campus through events, workshops, and the publication of a peer-reviewed journal. Undergraduate researchers from all academic disciplines are welcome to submit to the journal, which is staffed by editors majoring and minoring across nearly twenty departments at GW. Our organization also publishes the Colonial Scope, an online news blog with a research focus. GWUR is entirely student-run and is supported by the Office of the Vice President for Research. Contents: "Association Between Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT and Aortic Distensibility by MRI in Psoriasis" PARAG SHUKLA, AMIT DEY, AGASTYA BELUR, JACOB GROENENDYK, YOUSSEF ELNABAWI, ADITYA GOYAL, JUSTIN RODANTE, LEONARD GENOVESE, MARK AHLMAN, MARTIN PLAYFORD, AND NEHAL MEHTA, Clinical Medicine "Energy Materials Analysis for Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting" RACHEL GRAY, DEVIN JESSUP, AND SANIYA LEBLANC, Materials Science "Detection of Exoplanets Using the Transit Method" DENNIS AFANASEV, Astrophysics “'The Indian Method of Warring': Wampum, Warfare, and George Washington’s Lessons in Frontier Diplomacy During the Seven Years’ War" ANNABEL G. LABRECQUE, History "Asymmetric Campaign Advertising: Partisan Differences in 2014 Congressional Campaign Advertisements" DANIEL A. WETTER, Political Communication "Examining the 2007 Redenomination of the Ghanaian Cedi on the Disinflation Process Using the Chow Structural Break Test and VAR" RIKI MATSUMOTO, International Economics "The Role of Pension Funds in the Development of Capital Markets in Latin America" JUAN PABLO POCH, Financial Economics
    Keywords: Undergraduate research, GWUR, GW Undergraduate Review, Student works, Financial economics, Clinical medicine, Materials science, Astrophysics , History, Political communication, International economics
    Date Uploaded: 04/18/2018
  77. Asymmetric Campaign Advertising: Partisan Differences in 2014 Congressional Campaign Advertisements [Download]

    Title: Asymmetric Campaign Advertising: Partisan Differences in 2014 Congressional Campaign Advertisements
    Author: Wetter, Daniel
    Description: This preliminary study identified partisan differences in television advertisements for Senate candidates in 2014 and paves the path for further study of partisan differences in campaign advertising more broadly. Analyzing data gathered on all of the television advertisements aired for U.S. Senate candidates in 2014, this research finds distinct partisan styles emanating from both of the major political parties. In particular, the data suggests that candidates for the Republican Party used more cohesive messaging during the 2014 election cycle, while candidates for the Democratic Party advertised on a wider array of issues. These findings align with previous research on partisan asymmetry in the United States, and have important implications for future campaigns. Understanding how campaigns advertise to voters is one of the first steps to addressing growing polarization in Congress.
    Keywords: Political advertising , Campaign communications, 2014 U.S. Senate elections, Campaigns, Political polarization, Elections
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  78. Association Between Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT and Aortic Distensibility by MRI in Psoriasis [Download]

    Title: Association Between Aortic Vascular Inflammation by PET/CT and Aortic Distensibility by MRI in Psoriasis
    Author: Shukla, Parag
    Description: Globally, 18 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) annually, making it the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, inflammation has been established as a key cause of CVD, but the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on cardiovascular (CV) risk remains poorly understood. Psoriasis (PSO), a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with increased CV events, provides an ideal clinical model to study the role of inflammation in CV disease. Aortic vascular inflammation (VI) by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT as well as aortic distensibility (AD) by MRI, are important markers of subclinical CV disease and have been shown to predict future CV events. Following subclinical markers, such as AD, enables physicians to make judicious treatment decisions before CV events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina occur. Our study demonstrates a novel association between VI and AD in patients with chronic inflammatory disease.
    Keywords: Atherosclerosis, MRI, FDG-PET/CT, Inflammation, Psoriasis
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  79. The Role of Pension Funds in the Development of Capital Markets in Latin America [Download]

    Title: The Role of Pension Funds in the Development of Capital Markets in Latin America
    Author: Poch, Juan Pablo
    Description: Over the past two decades, Latin America has stood out as one of the regions with most promising economic fundamentals and potential among emerging markets. Nonetheless, its track record of economic development has lagged in comparison to other developing economies – especially in the Asia-Pacific region – which points to, among various issues, to an underdevelopment of stable and widespread capital markets. The increasing incorporation of capital markets into financial systems historically dominated by banking systems in Latin America facilitates the process of raising and allocating capital while minimizing transaction costs, mitigating risk through diversification, and improving accessibility to economic actors. This paper analyzes the role of pension funds in the development of capital markets in Latin America as both financial intermediaries and institutional investors with distinguishing characteristics and advantages. I use a series of ordinary least squares regressions to test the effect of the growth on pension fund assets in the growth of stock and bond markets while controlling for entity and time fixed effects, and macroeconomic and demographic factors. The results are both positive and statistically significant for both sets of regressions, despite the differing country-specific circumstances. I conclude that the constructive role of pension funds in Latin American capital markets can promote the enhancement of financial systems overall and contribute to the efficient and equitable economic development of countries across the region. Further, I suggest policies that could be implemented to achieve these objectives.
    Keywords: Institutional investors , Bond markets, Stock markets,, Financial reforms, Economic development, Pension funds, Financial intermediation, Macroeconomic policy
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  80. Examining the 2007 Redenomination of the Ghanaian Cedi on the Disinflation Process Using the Chow Structural Break Test and VAR [Download]

    Title: Examining the 2007 Redenomination of the Ghanaian Cedi on the Disinflation Process Using the Chow Structural Break Test and VAR
    Author: Matsumoto, Riki
    Description: Ghana has experienced high and variable rates of inflation over the past 40 years. While this is no longer the case, inflation remains stubbornly elevated relative to economies of similar size (Magnus & Fosa, 2011). Conventional disinflation policies involve countercyclical monetary policies, reducing fiscal expenditure, and comprehensive economic and political reform. These policies in turn can be bolstered by a currency redenomination; when the nominal value of all prices is reduced. A number of countries such as, Turkey (in 2005), Romania (in 2005), Belarus (in 2006 and 2016) have pursued this strategy, including Ghana (in 2007). The question of whether currency redenomination is an effective qualitative tool in the disinflation process is important because of its potential as an important tool for countries struggling with high and variable rates of inflation. Unfortunately, existing literature has been deficient, and no appropriate techniques have been employed to examine this question. Thus, the goal of this paper is to examine the impact of the Ghanaian currency redenomination in 2007 on the disinflation process using appropriate statistical techniques; the Chow Test and Vector Autoregression (VAR), then evaluate whether it may be an effective policy option for monetary authorities. This paper employed monthly time series data from January 2000 to September 2017 provided by the Bank of Ghana. The results gathered in this paper showed that the Chow Test found a structural break before and after the date of redenomination. However, the bifurcated vector autoregression VAR(3) was inconclusive as to whether the policy itself directly affected the disinflation process. These results suggest that further research is needed to evaluate the potential of currency redenomination as a qualitative tool in the disinflation process. Originality/value – This paper is one of few studies which has investigated the impact of currency redenomination, especially in Africa and Ghana specifically.
    Keywords: Ghana , Monetary policy, Inflation, International macroeconomics inflation, Redenomination, VAR model
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  81. “The Indian Method of Warring”: Wampum, Warfare, and George Washington’s Lessons in Frontier Diplomacy During the Seven Years’ War [Download]

    Title: “The Indian Method of Warring”: Wampum, Warfare, and George Washington’s Lessons in Frontier Diplomacy During the Seven Years’ War
    Author: LaBrecque, Annabel G.
    Description: Any scholar and student of early American history is well aware that there is no shortage of literature on George Washington. In recent years, scholars have done well to point out that Washington, despite generations of academic and public deification, was just as human as his more easily forgotten contemporaries, a reality evidenced by his (in)famous military mishap in the inter-imperial hinterlands of eastern North America that started the first world war in 1754. Yet Washingtonian literature remains void of a key element of Washington’s experience in Indian country: his experience with Indians. In a biographical history spanning four centuries, there is still yet to be seen a Washington biography detailing his experiences with his nearest foreign foes and allies. This research paper attempts to fill that void. This is not another study of young Washington’s experience in the British colonial militia, but rather a breakdown of the lessons he learned in warfare and diplomacy as a visitor in Native lodges, villages, and territories and how he applied these experiences to British colonial warfare and wartime politics. These lessons are best understood only when Native players are recast in their proper roles, as the kings, half kings, and queens of Indian country. This redistribution of political and historical agency and reconceptualization of monolithic narratives allows us to better understand the inseparability of colonial, early American, and Native American histories.
    Keywords: George Washington, Seven Years’ War, Native America, Colonial America, Native Americans, Colonialism, Imperialism, War, Diplomacy
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  82. Energy Materials Analysis for Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting [Download]

    Title: Energy Materials Analysis for Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting
    Author: Gray, Rachel
    Description: This research aimed to improve selective laser melting (SLM) of energy materials for thermoelectric power generation devices. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) are solid state devices that offer the potential for waste heat recovery in combustion and heat process systems. These devices are currently being manufactured using bulk material processing with many integration and assembly steps, leading to decreased product efficiency and high manufacturing costs. Selective laser melting is an additive manufacturing technique, when combined with semiconductive powder offers a solution to these manufacturing challenges.
    Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, Selective laser melting, Powder spreading, Powder morphology
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  83. Detection of Exoplanets Using the Transit Method [Download]

    Title: Detection of Exoplanets Using the Transit Method
    Author: Afanasev, Dennis
    Description: Differential photometry was conducted on the star GSC 3281-0800, a known host to exoplanet HAT-P-32b, using analysis software AstroImageJ. Measurements were plotted from a series of images taken during the transit, via ADU count given from an earth-based digital CCD camera. A definite light curve was established and more details about the properties of this exoplanet were discovered.
    Keywords: Exoplanets , Transit method, Differential photometry
    Date Uploaded: 04/17/2018
  84. Young Adults' Experiences with Sexually Explicit Internet Materials [Download]

    Title: Young Adults' Experiences with Sexually Explicit Internet Materials
    Author: Espinel, Sarah
    Description: Though young adults today have been exposed to sexually explicit internet materials (SEIM) at young ages through easily accessible platforms, little is known about SEIM’s influence on sexual self-esteem. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between these variables for heterosexual and gay men, as well as heterosexual females, a vastly underrepresented population in research involving SEIM. Participants completed an online survey through a Facebook link posted by 10 recruiters. The typical length of SEIM viewing sessions was found to be negatively correlated with heterosexual males and females’ sexual self-esteem.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Young adults, Sexually explicit internet materials
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  85. Culture, Time-Orientation, Coping Styles and their Effects on Procrastination [Download]

    Title: Culture, Time-Orientation, Coping Styles and their Effects on Procrastination
    Author: Shen, Ruihang
    Description: With the rapid development of new media in the present age, procrastination has become increasingly prevalent, especially among students. With considerable negative consequences on physical and mental health, academic and career achievements and financial and relationship aspects, a sizable body of research have examined various factors that influence the extent to which individuals procrastinate. However, most current research studying procrastination focuses on western, English-speaking countries. Also, though some research identifies time-orientation can be a significant predictor of procrastination, few study connect culture influence with time-orientation. Building on other studies, this project seeks to understand whether individuals’ time-orientations and copy styles mediate the influence of culture on procrastination. Theoretically, this study will fill in the gap of the previous study and extend people’s understanding of procrastination. Data are being collected from undergraduate students at the George Washington University. Participants will be approximately 75 domestic American students and 75 sojourning students originally from China. Participants will be asked to fill out a survey questionnaire that measures people’s considerations for future consequences, coping styles, motives of social media use, and tendency to procrastinate. Collected data will be analyzed using statistical analysis techniques, such as multiple regression. Results from the research will support or reject the following hypotheses: H1: Chinese students will have greater concern for future consequences than American students. H2: Concern for future consequence will be negatively associated with the use of social media to escape/relax, and will be positively associated with the use of social media to learn/get help. H3: The use of social media to escape/relax is positively associated with the tendency to procrastinate, whereas the use of social media to learn/get help is negatively associated with the tendency to procrastinate. H4: Concern for future consequences and motives for social media use will mediate the effect of culture on the tendency to procrastinate. The research will deepen people’s understanding of the role of culture and social media use in shaping individuals’ tendencies to procrastinate, thus helping people, especially college students, to control their procrastination tendencies.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Mental health, Cultural influence, Social media
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  86. A Qualitative Analysis Of Internal Migration To Beijing [Download]

    Title: A Qualitative Analysis Of Internal Migration To Beijing
    Author: Corn, Hannah
    Description: Using ethnographic data from Beijing, participant observation focus groups, semi-structured interviews and background research, this article examines the interplay of narratives of the Chinese government, academics, and everyday people regarding internal migration to Beijing, aiming to address the complex societal issue of why individuals continue to migrate to Beijing despite clear resistance measures from those in the government and on the ground. First, there is a clear disconnect between migrant workers’ and non-local hukou holders’ motivations for migrating regarding education and job opportunities, and the Chinese government’s attempted solutions both in policy and practice to discourage migration through mystical offers of local hukous and lavish housing. Secondly, although there is a broad understanding that Beijing’s population is outgrowing its resources, how and who regulates this growing phenomenon continues to lack consensus. Lastly, there exists internal pushback from local Beijing residents for further assimilation of migrant workers and non-local hukou holders into Beijing society, preventing efficient and effective implementation of reforms at the local level. While existing research primarily focuses on overarching government policies and reforms or, more specifically, rural migrant workers in industrial provinces, this article focuses on non-local hukou holders as well as migrant workers in Beijing; and their everyday interaction with government policies, examining their motivations and expectations for migration, as a method of analyzing policies effectiveness. Immigrants to Beijing accept an often marginalized livelihood in Beijing in search of better access to resources, education, and job opportunities, and seek a more equitable system of their access to goods. This article analyzes the various discourses among different populations in Beijing, ultimately, offering policy recommendations for the political and cultural context of 21st Century China.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Beijing, Internal migration, Migrant workers
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  87. U.S. Politics at Work: The Impact of Leader-Follower Political Alignment [Download]

    Title: U.S. Politics at Work: The Impact of Leader-Follower Political Alignment
    Author: Foley, Kira
    Description: In the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, the American Psychological Association has identified politics as a workplace issue on which little organizational research has been done to date. The current study helps fill this gap by examining the effects of employees' perceived political alignment (PPA) with one’s leader on job satisfaction and job-related stress. PPA is defined as the extent to which employees believe their own political ideology (i.e., conservatism) to be in alignment with their perceptions of their leader’s political ideology. Data was collected in an online survey, distributed to participants (n = 688) via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Results from two moderated-mediation models indicate that PPA is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to job stress, such that those who felt their political ideology was more aligned with that of their leader’s experienced more job satisfaction and less job-related stress as compared to individuals who felt less politically aligned with their leader. These relationships were both mediated by the quality of leader-member-exchange. Contrary to predictions, the mediated impact of PPA on job satisfaction and stress was not moderated by interest in politics, tolerance for opposing political views, or company’s disclosure policies. However, our findings that the impact of PPA on job satisfaction and stress held across individuals with differing levels of general interest in politics, tolerance for diverse opinions, as well as across organizations with differing levels of acceptance of expression of political views in the workplace, suggests robust effects that generalize to many individuals, organizations and industries. Implications for how research and practice can leverage these results to address the role of national politics in workplace relations are addressed.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Organizational psychology, Politics, Political ideology
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  88. Wal-Mart V.S. Supermarkets: Sales and Quality Impact of Wal-Mart on Supermarkets in Cities [Download]

    Title: Wal-Mart V.S. Supermarkets: Sales and Quality Impact of Wal-Mart on Supermarkets in Cities
    Author: Wang, Alex
    Description: In 2017, Wal-Mart’s employs 1% of U.S. workers. Its sales account for 2 % of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product. Wal-Mart as a company is not only consequential but also controversial. Wal-Mart “Supercenters” offers fresh food and beverages in addition to the usual discount products. Such deliberate strategies have implications for traditional food and beverage stores. This paper focuses on Wal-Mart Supercenters’ effects on the retail supermarket industry in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA). This paper explores the causal impact of Wal-Mart expansion on supermarkets food sales and supermarkets store quality. Estimation of econometric models reveals that, a 10% increase in Wal-Mart stores in a given city is expected to decrease the aggregate supermarkets sales by 1%. In addition to this sales effect, such a 10% growth in Wal-Mart stores raises the employment to sales ratio, an indicator for store quality, by 0.8%. In addition to making the supermarket industry more competitive and causing competitors to raise store quality better, Wal-Mart does not have a statistically significant impact on supermarket exit and job loss. My findings suggest that Wal-Mart lowers supermarket sales, increases supermarket quality, gives urban consumers more food shopping choices, and potentially offers more food employment opportunities.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Economics, Sales, Business
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  89. Inequality and Altruism: Explore the Effect of Inequality on Charitable Giving Across Countries [Download]

    Title: Inequality and Altruism: Explore the Effect of Inequality on Charitable Giving Across Countries
    Author: Gao, Zhenghuang
    Description: Income inequality is different across countries as well as other economic, political and cultural factors. The mainly purpose of this paper was to explore the relationship between income inequality and three measures of altruism across different countries. The three measures of altruism are helping strangers, volunteering one’s time to an organization and donating money. Data of this paper are mainly from Gallup World Poll and World Bank Development Indicator. First, this paper finds people living in more unequal countries are more likely to choose volunteering their time to an organization and helping strangers rather than donating money as their charity behavior. Becker’s time allocation model has been used to interpret this result. Second, this paper also verifies previous literature that welfare states have no crowd out effect on charitable giving from the coefficient of a public total expenditure regressor. Third, this paper using country-level data verifies individual-level studies that donating money and volunteering one’s time to an organization are complements. Further studies are needed for data integrity and to investigate the effects of internal remittances and tax deduction on charitable giving across countries.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Economics, Income inequality, Altruism, Charitable giving
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  90. Revolutionary Grievances: Exploring American Influence on Common French Citizens via the Cahiers de Doléances [Download]

    Title: Revolutionary Grievances: Exploring American Influence on Common French Citizens via the Cahiers de Doléances
    Author: Warren, Elliot
    Description: The influence of the American Revolution on the French Revolution is a topic that has received ample attention since Americans first saw the reflections of themselves as the events in France unfolded in the late eighteenth century. However, these analyses often focus on the key players of both revolutions, and how they influenced the development of revolutionary thought. What is often missed is how common French citizens, largely poor and illiterate, developed sentiments that pushed them from relative compliance in the Ancien Regime, to intense political activity. Fortuitously, the early days of the French Revolution provide scholars with an invaluable source that serves as a window into public sentiment across all levels of society, the cahiers de doléances. The cahiers, ubiquitous across France, were King Louis XVI's call to the citizens of France to list their grievances ahead of the Estates General of 1789. For my senior honors thesis, I am currently examining these cahiers to search for American influence, implicit or explicit, intentional or unintentional, that made its way across the Atlantic Ocean into the minds of common French citizens. I am seeking to answer the question, how were common French citizens influenced by the American Revolution, if at all? The most analogous sources for the American Revolution are various grievances delivered to King George III, culminating in the local declarations of independence that predated the national Declaration of Independence of July 1776. These state and local declarations detail the first generation of Americans' grievances toward George III and their demands for a more just society. By studying these two sets of sources, I plan to explore convergences and divergences between the American and French Revolutions that go beyond the established trends in current history which focus on the influence of revolutionary leaders and shared Enlightenment philosophy. This study holds the promise of better understanding the ideology of common people and their relationship to the state by the close of the eighteenth century. By examining these similar sources, we can have a deeper appreciation for what the revolutions shared and what made them unique. Common people drove the French Revolution, and their grievances listed in the cahiers de doléances present our best hope for perceiving what, if any, influence the American Revolution might have had on the general French populace. Only then can we determine whether the late eighteenth century was truly an age of Atlantic revolutions.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, American Revolution, French Revolution, King George III, King Louis XVI, France
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  91. Environmental Development and Sustainability in Southern Africa: A Case Study of Government-Led Drought Relief in Namibia [Download]

    Title: Environmental Development and Sustainability in Southern Africa: A Case Study of Government-Led Drought Relief in Namibia
    Author: DiPersio, Jillian A.
    Description: A major trend in the development arena has been the move away from states and towards NGOs as the primary implementers of development projects. However, the ability of NGOs to achieve their objectives, especially those which require long-term engagement, has been insufficiently examined. This study explores the topic of NGO-led environmental and agricultural development projects in the drylands of southern Africa. This research uses Namibia as a case study, focusing on the //Kharas region, which has been experiencing drought-like conditions since 2012. The //Kharas region provides an illustrative and extreme example of the challenges faced by development actors in African drylands. As such, analysis of this case offers insights for other countries experiencing arid conditions as a result of climate change. Analytical methods used in this study include qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with farmers in the //Kharas region, as well as interviews with Washington, DC-based development practitioners. This research ultimately argues development projects, particularly those which address longer-term environmental issues such as land degradation and climate change, require sufficient host government buy-in to be successful and achieve long-term sustainability. The findings have implications for improving our understanding of the factors necessary for sustainable development in drylands, an area of increasing importance due to the specter of climate change.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, Sustainability, South Africa, Namibia, Agriculture, Environmental development, NGO
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  92. How to Increase Retention Rates for Online-Only Students [Download]

    Title: How to Increase Retention Rates for Online-Only Students
    Author: Lynch, Rebecca
    Description: In Fall of 2015, 14.4% of all degree-seeking post-secondary students were enrolled in online-only programs (The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017). However, studies have shown that online student retention rates are as low as 50-60% (Gravel, 2012). Current research shows that efforts to increase retention are minimal at best. The theory behind this study is drawn from research that focuses on the experience of online-only students in higher education as it relates to the retention rates for that population, as well as those studies encompassing retention in general. Many practitioners and researchers have tackled this subject from various perspectives in recent years. Research was drawn from studies and articles published within the last 10 years, in either peer-reviewed journals or from nationally recognized higher education organizations and publications (American Council on Education or The Chronicle of Higher Education, for example). The main factors that contribute to online-only student retention are a strong sense of community among students (Dunworth, 2012; Sutton, 2014; Mannay & Wilcock, 2015), engaging interactions with faculty and staff (Gravel, 2012; Sutton, 2014; de Freitas, 2015), and strong writing skills (Sutton, 2014). Going forward, practitioners can anticipate the biggest challenges in online student retention to be addressing student underpreparedness for the rigor of a degree program, finding ways to foster community from afar, and aiding students with computer literacy skills. Increased retention for online students will lead to higher success rates in accessible higher education opportunities for diverse and widespread students; therefore, it is of utmost importance to specifically target online students in retention efforts across higher education. A poster presentation will be followed by time for questions and/or discussion.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Education, Human development, Online learning
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  93. Cultural Heritage in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Comparative Analysis of the Failures of International Cultural Property Law [Download]

    Title: Cultural Heritage in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Comparative Analysis of the Failures of International Cultural Property Law
    Author: Kavita, Oza
    Description: In the past decade, international politicians have been obsessively seeking to eliminate the threat of terrorist groups in the arena of politics and power. Though we have come a long way from where we stood twenty years ago, insurgency groups consistently finds alternative methods to fuel their existence. In today’s international and political struggle for power, financing acts of terrorism have approached much more creative methods. International bodies of politics, power and law have become intertwined with the art market. In fact, buyers and sellers are being warned to be extremely cautious handling the transactions involving antiquities arriving from the Middle East or areas of development because of their possible link to ISIL, Al Qaeda, and various other groups. In order words, terrorist organizations are not only looting cultural property from the states in which they operate, but, in order to generate income, they also sell these artifacts. These antiquities often carry a significant, often priceless, historical and cultural meaning to their country of origin. Monetarily, they are also extremely valuable to both a buyer adding to his collection, and a seller increasing his portfolio. And though art dealers may not be keen on supporting any type of transaction involving terrorist organizations, the lack of transparency within the system makes it increasingly hard to tell which potential acquisition has dangerous consequences. Often times, these risky consequences are ignored for the prestige of the possession of such items. Though dealing with art is not the only source of income for terrorist groups, securing any financial acquisitions is imperative to their existence and success. However, the burden of the continued distribution of antiquities does not rest entirely on these organizations. In order for this kind of market to exist, there must be a demand. Indeed, as we have seen over the past decade, art dealers are more than happy to ignore the provenance of certain pieces. Selling these types of antiquities in the black market involves the transfer and handling of a lot of money - millions of US dollars. At this price level, the antiquities are often associated with the prestigious actors or even governments. Too often, state governments do not take actions “required” by the body of international law under which the states carry out their relations with one another. The outcome of this negligence is contributing to the threats posed by and existence of terrorist organizations. In order to evaluate the relationship and overlap between art and international law, this paper will first look cases of art dealing with the United States, Cambodia, and Afghanistan. The paper will point out the actions of these governments and actors within them, notably Hobby Lobby, the Khmer Rouge, and the Taliban, respectively. The paper will then move onto the answer several questions regarding international law relating to each of these cases.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, Elliott School of International Affairs, Art history, International law, Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan, Cultural heritage
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  94. The Qatari Kafala System & International Inaction [Download]

    Title: The Qatari Kafala System & International Inaction
    Author: Fulham, Mary
    Description: In 2010, FIFA named Qatar as the host of the 2022 World Cup, despite the fact that Qatar is home to an institutionalized form of human trafficking called the kafala system. By choosing Qatar as the World Cup host, the international community implicitly accepted the kafala system and demonstrated a willingness to overlook the reality that Qatar’s $327 billion economy was built on the backs of enslaved migrant laborers. This case study seeks to answer the following question: How has this country—which relies on such an oppressive labor system—maintained strong political and economic relationships with countries that claim to champion civil liberties and human rights? This study tests two hypotheses: (1) The Qatari government has been able to maintain the kafala system without negatively impacting bilateral relations because foreign leaders have ignored the system’s abusive and exploitative qualities for reasons of economic self-interest. (2) The Qatari government has not substantively reformed the kafala system because the international community has no leverage over the Qatari government. To test the first hypothesis, the foreign policy doctrines of Qatar’s primary economic allies are evaluated to gauge commitment to the protection of human rights and civil liberties abroad. The stated doctrine of each country is compared to governmental policy regarding Qatar. This comparison reveals a disconnection between stated doctrine and its implementation that appears to reflect a prioritization of economic interests over human rights. For the second hypothesis, annual reports of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations are analyzed to track Qatar’s responsiveness to the ILO. The reports show that Qatar consistently violates conventions and disregards the Committee’s recommendations. Accordingly, the kafala system has persisted in part because the ILO cannot force Qatar to adhere to agreed-upon conventions. Given the complexity of global politics and economics, it is likely that a combination of factors have resulted in the impunity with which Qatar maintains its kafala system. This research presents preliminary evidence of two of these factors: the willingness of foreign leaders to overlook the human rights abuses of the kafala system to preserve their economic interests, and the impotence of international organizations set up to enforce accepted standards for labor practices and human rights. More research must be done to confirm these findings, to understand which of these two factors holds more explanatory power, and to reveal other contributing factors.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Qatar, International politics, Human rights
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  95. Effects of Ethnicity on American Children’s Attitudes About Mental Illness [Download]

    Title: Effects of Ethnicity on American Children’s Attitudes About Mental Illness
    Author: Quinn, Shaylyn
    Description: Approximately 44.7 million adults in the United States experience mental illness in a given year. Yet in 2016, only 43% of those adults suffering from a mental health condition received mental health services (SAMHSA, 2017), largely because of the negative stigma associated with mental illness in the United States. Culture also plays an indisputable role in the conversation about mental health, reflected in the differences in prevalence of mental disorders, attitudes towards mental illness, and the subsequent utilization of mental health services among various racial and ethnic groups (Asnaani, Richey, Dimalite, Hinton, & Hoffman, 2010, SAMHSA, 2015). Half of all chronic mental illness begins by age 14, three-quarters by age 24 (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). Therefore, it is in the interest of children, families, and future generations to attempt to better understand the formation of mental health stigma among children. To further investigate the relationship between race/ethnicity and stigmatization of mental illness among American children, this study recruited 37 children age 9 to 11 from a variety of organizations such as YMCAs, community centers, and extracurricular programs in Washington, D.C. and Massachusetts. Participants read two short stories about hypothetical classmates exhibiting signs of either depression or conduct disorder, two of the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders among children. With a parent’s consent, participants then filled out a questionnaire that was adopted from the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds initiative (MHCC, 2013). The questionnaire used a Likert scale to measure implicit stereotyped attributions and social tolerance regarding individuals with a mental disorder. Each item was given a score of 1 to 5 in such a way that higher scores indicated greater levels of stigmatization. Stigma scores combined stereotype and social tolerance scores. Parents filled out a demographic questionnaire, listing the child’s race/ethnicity and his or her exposure to mental illness within the immediate family. Preliminary analyses on this sample indicated that mean stigma scores were statistically significantly greater for the 25 participants belonging to a minority group (M=3.19) than for the 12 European Americans (M=2.67, t(37)=2.95, p<.01). These results highlight the need for culturally specific strategies for combatting mental health stigma among American children. Further data collection is currently still in progress.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Mental health
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  96. Visual Study of a Refugee: A Case Study [Download]

    Title: Visual Study of a Refugee: A Case Study
    Author: Khatib, Imam
    Description: Objective: Art therapy can provide an opportunity to present personal narratives with consideration to cultural standards of expression. Through the tools of image and narrative presented through art therapy, it is possible to capture a glimpse of the experience of a refugee. Method: A qualitative case study explored the experience of a group of siblings in a metropolitan area. Over two sessions, they used images and words to share their unique experience of the refugee journey through the use of a visual journal. Participants were provided with semi-structured prompts and a wide array of art materials which included fluid materials such as paint and oil pastels to restrictive materials of colored pencils and markers. The freedom in both art materials and directives allowed for a range of responses. Findings: Participants were able to share their journey to the United States and acclimation to their new society. Visual journals included themes of spontaneous disclosure of trauma, spirituality as a source of resiliency, cultural family dynamics, as well as acculturation process. Acculturation was affirmed in the blend of Syrian icons as well as American holiday symbols. The values of a collectivist culture emerged as strengths that allowed for orientation towards the future. Implications: This case study demonstrated the utility of art therapy for refugees to share their experiences in a culturally responsive manner. The participants displayed a range of disclosure through creative expression and the containment of a visual journal. Art therapy can reduce cultural stigma around seeking therapeutic services within the refugee population. The shortage of refugee accounts using a trauma informed approach demonstrates the increased need for additional research and direct therapeutic services such as art therapy.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Refugee, Art therapy, Acculturation
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  97. Genetic diversity of Propithecus verreauxi across Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve [Download]

    Title: Genetic diversity of Propithecus verreauxi across Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve
    Author: White, Cassandra M.
    Description: Understanding how protection strategies influence the genetic diversity of endangered species can benefit conservation and research efforts. Recent expansion of Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwest Madagascar to include distinct areas that allow varying levels of human activity offers an opportunity to assess the impact of protection levels on the sifaka lemur (Propithecus verreauxi) population. Here, we report on preliminary measures of genetic diversity and differentiation across protection areas. We collected 67 fecal swab and pellet samples from sifakas across four areas of the reserve characterized by distinct protection levels and habitat types. We used DNA extracted from these samples to perform sex-typing and microsatellite genotyping at seven loci. We tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, estimated average heterozygosity within each of the areas, and tested for differentiation in allele frequencies among the areas of the reserve. The success rate of microsatellite genotyping was above ninety percent, and six of the seven loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; these six loci were used for all subsequent analyses. The lowest level of heterozygosity was observed in the sustainable use zone, a newly established area with the lowest level of protection. This area also demonstrated significant differentiation from the other three areas in pairwise comparisons of allele frequencies. Larger-scale analyses regarding the impact of differing and changing protection levels at BMSR that integrate ecological and behavioral data with genetic information are ongoing across all areas.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Anthropology, Genetic diversity, Conservation
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  98. Trauma and Stress Among Central American Immigrants Living in Langley Park, Maryland [Download]

    Title: Trauma and Stress Among Central American Immigrants Living in Langley Park, Maryland
    Author: Mattiola, Rosalie
    Description: Central Americans from Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras represent one of the largest growing populations in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (Krogstad & Keegan, 2015; Zong & Batalova, 2015). As the U.S. population grows more diverse, the health and wellbeing of migrant populations becomes more important in the understanding of global public health and related policies. Nonetheless, the breadth information about the health issues and vulnerabilities related to transnational migration is still narrow, particularly in the context of Central American migration. This investigation seeks to better understand the sociocultural circumstances that surround Central American migration to the U.S. and how those conditions influence the mental health of the population studied. Specifically, the study explores the occurrence of stress and experience of traumatic events, considering Central American immigrants’ life history in their country of origin, their migration experience, and their ability to adjust to living in the United States. This exploratory, qualitative-quantitative investigation analyses a total of 75 migration-focused life history interviews, collected in Spanish in Langley Park, MD. The study population is composed of 59% female and 41% male participants between the ages of 18 and 57. A minimum of 10 follow-up interviews with immigrant community leaders in Langley Park will be collected, focusing on cultural expression and understanding of stress and trauma. The potential for psychological stress is high in each segment of migratory transition. The two primary reasons for leaving respondents’ home country are to escape violence victimization, and poverty. Those escaping violence have fled from gang violence, domestic violence, or discriminatory violence. More than two-thirds of respondents experienced migration stress, including experiencing or witnessing violence or sexual assault, imprisonment for ransom, temporary incarceration, and difficulties crossing the Mexican desert. Almost half experienced health problems during migration. Most respondents face difficulty adjusting to life in the U.S. due to high living costs, insecurity due to the current political climate, lack of doctors nearby, language barriers, and lack of social support. Despite the hardships, most participants cite work opportunities, better safety, and access to schools and transportation as positive components of living in the United States. This pilot study will lay the groundwork for important future research on the social determinants of health among Central American and other non-Latino immigrant populations. Additionally, this research will serve as a reference for larger-scale epidemiology studies regarding Central American immigrant stress and PTSD.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Public health, Central America, Transnational migration
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  99. Alexander the Great and Hephaestion: Censorship and Bisexual Erasure in Post-Macedonian Society [Download]

    Title: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion: Censorship and Bisexual Erasure in Post-Macedonian Society
    Author: Richardson, Athena
    Description: Same-sex relations were common in ancient Greece, and while having both male and female relations in one’s life was the norm, Alexander the Great is almost always portrayed in modern depictions as heterosexual. This study contributes a new perspective on the greater problem of understanding bisexual erasure throughout history and modern day media. Initially submitted as a 24-page research paper for Dr. Diane Cline’s seminar on Alexander the Great, the research is about bisexual erasure, looking for what information is missing about the relationship between Alexander and his life-partner Hephaestion. A full 18 years ago, bisexual erasure entered the discourse in sex and gender theory, describing the phenomenon of hiding bisexual experiences in heteronormative literature, film, and popular culture. Since then, case studies have focused on contemporary instances. A compelling case study is the reception of the emotional, romantic, and sexual relationship between Alexander and Hephaestion, even as Alexander had two children by different women and married three. Bisexual erasure now extends back 2300 years with my research, along with its implications in the larger focus of LGBT censorship throughout history. Even though bisexuality was a social norm in Greek culture, the disappearance of Hephaestion is all but complete in ancient literature. I have examined five full primary source biographies of Alexander from antiquity, and observed the way scholars, popular writers and filmmakers from the Victorian era forward have treated their relationship. I have also been reading the current theoretical literature on bisexual erasure, a term first coined in 2000. My study of Alexander and Hephaestion suggests that their relationship did not fit the norm of pederasty. Normally boys and men did have relations with each other, but generally they were not of the same age and there was almost always a financial and power difference. Hephaestion was taller and more handsome, so it might have appeared that he held the power in their relationship. Ancient biographers may have conducted censorship to conceal any implication of femininity or submissiveness in Alexander that this relationship dynamic might suggest. As a result, subsequent cultures would have hidden the relationship too. My work suggests that bisexual erasure is not just a modern phenomenon of 19th and 20th century sensibilities, but extends back through antiquity. Even in a culture that accepted bisexuality, Alexander and Hephaestion’s relationship was an outlier and thus treated differently. My research shows how this same-sex relationship was erased, censored, and altered to fit norms of subsequent cultures.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, Bisexuality, Bisexual erasure, Alexander the Great
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018
  100. Fintech and Financial Inclusion: An Analysis of Brazil [Download]

    Title: Fintech and Financial Inclusion: An Analysis of Brazil
    Author: Ricca, Giulia
    Description: Fintech has become a ubiquitous buzzword, but there is little literature on their role in the financial market in upper-middle income countries. The Brazilian fintech market is experiencing a boom as new fintechs emerge and banks invest in their own technologies with promises of a better customer experience. This paper uses regression analysis to examine whether Brazilian fintechs impact financial inclusion through the mechanism of lower interest rates. The paper uses two regressions and finds that the presence of fintechs has a significant negative relationship with financial inclusion but that this relationship is not economically meaningful; the founding of one fintech sees a decrease of 6,000 active financial relationships. The paper finds that fintech interest rates do not significantly differ from traditional bank rates, but trends in the data demonstrate that fintechs charge higher interest rates. This indicates that fintechs are gaining traction with consumer because of convenience and ease of use, rather than price.
    Keywords: Research Days 2018, International affairs, Brazil, Economics
    Date Uploaded: 04/14/2018