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  1. Identifying Regulations Affecting International Trade and Investment: Better Classification Could Improve Regulatory Cooperation [Download]

    Title: Identifying Regulations Affecting International Trade and Investment: Better Classification Could Improve Regulatory Cooperation
    Author: Pérez, Daniel R.
    Description: Although technological and political innovations have reduced many of the traditional barriers to international trade and investment flows, regulatory differences between countries persist as lingering barriers to trade. Countries agree that notifying each other of upcoming regulations that may affect international trade and investment is an important mechanism of international regulatory cooperation, which attempts to minimize the creation of unnecessary and costly regulatory divergence. Since 2008 regulatory agencies in the United States have been required to flag regulations they intend to issue that are likely to have an effect on international trade and investment. This paper quantifies how many of the thousands of rules published every year by U.S. agencies are likely to have a significant effect on international trade and investment and analyzes how well agencies are performing at flagging these rules. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in notifying trade partners and expanding stakeholder participation to improve the outcomes of rulemaking.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, International Trade, Investment, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/14/2017
  2. Regulation, Innovation, & Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Literature [Download]

    Title: Regulation, Innovation, & Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Literature
    Author: Zárate Moreno, Ana Maria
    Description: The impact of regulation on innovation and entrepreneurship is a concern all over the world. The regulatory environment in which firms interact can hinder or contribute to the creation and early stage growth of new businesses as well as to the innovative process within a market. This document reviews the empirical literature that explores the relationship between regulation and innovation and regulation and entrepreneurship, focusing on the effects of regulatory quality across countries. As expected, most empirical analyses find a relationship between regulatory restrictions and entrepreneurship. Moreover, the analysis illustrates the complexity of the effect of regulation on innovation. The thematic analysis conducted in this literature review indicates that institutions matter for economic activities and that regulation, as an important part of the institutional environment, is a central aspect of the ecosystem for innovation and entrepreneurial engagement.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/12/2017
  3. Regulatory Reforms to Enhance Competition: Recommendations for Implementing Executive Order 13725 [Download]

    Title: Regulatory Reforms to Enhance Competition: Recommendations for Implementing Executive Order 13725
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: Since the formation of the U.S. federal regulatory system, regulations have had a significant influence on marketplace competition. Regulations often seek to improve competition by restraining monopolies; others tend to reduce competition by establishing one-size-fits-all standards for consumer products or acting as nontariff barriers limiting competition from foreign trade partners. Recognizing the importance of this relationship, on April 15th President Barack Obama signed an Executive Order instructing federal agencies to identify and address barriers to competition. This Executive Order provides agencies with a valuable opportunity to reevaluate existing rules that create barriers to competition.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/12/2017
  4. Improving the Accountability of Federal Regulatory Agencies, Part I: A Review of Government-Wide Efforts [Download]

    Title: Improving the Accountability of Federal Regulatory Agencies, Part I: A Review of Government-Wide Efforts
    Author: Peacock, Marcus
    Description: Policymakers in the United States show persistent interest in improving the accountability of federal regulatory agencies. Before mandating further requirements, Congress and the President should (1) identify government-wide accountability initiatives that were already attempted at regulatory agencies and (2) assess the outcome of those efforts. The relative success or failure of these efforts could help guide the design and implementation of future regulatory reforms. This Regulatory Insight is the first in a series of 3 on this topic. It fulfills the first of these tasks by identifying eight major government-wide accountability initiatives in the United States that were also implemented at regulatory agencies.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper , Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/12/2017
  5. Improving the Accountability of Federal Regulatory Agencies, Part III: What Reforms Work Best [Download]

    Title: Improving the Accountability of Federal Regulatory Agencies, Part III: What Reforms Work Best
    Author: Peacock, Marcus
    Description: Eight major U.S. government reform initiatives failed to significantly improve the accountability of federal agencies. This third of a three-part series identifies (1) lack of sustained leadership and (2) unfaithful execution by agencies as two reasons for these failures. The problem of inadequate leadership could be addressed by adopting more modest reforms (incrementalism) and/or codifying the reform(s) into law. The obstacle of unfaithful execution could be overcome by creating or engaging an objective third party to implement or enforce implementation of the reform and/or creating competition among agencies that provides incentives for embracing reform. Using these lessons, three characteristics of regulatory reforms that will work are identified: codification in law; creation of an independent organization to help execute the law; and establishing a framework for interagency competition.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Accountability, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/12/2017
  6. How Declining Budgets at U.S. Regulatory Agencies Could Improve Performance [Download]

    Title: How Declining Budgets at U.S. Regulatory Agencies Could Improve Performance
    Author: Peacock, Marcus
    Description: Although spending on U.S. regulatory programs has doubled in the last 20 years, that trend is unlikely to last. How these programs manage budget cuts will determine whether downsizing harms or helps regulatory performance. Leaders of regulatory agencies must avoid satisfying tighter budgets with temporary “mindless austerity” measures that anger workers. Instead managers should use scarcity to find, with workers, “frugal innovations” that can significantly and permanently improve program value.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  7. Congressional Review Act Fact Sheet [Download]

    Title: Congressional Review Act Fact Sheet
    Author: Pérez, Daniel R.
    Description: Congress enacted the Congressional Review Act (CRA) on March 29, 1996 as part of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) in an effort to increase its oversight of federal agency rulemaking. The CRA includes several parliamentary mechanisms, explained below, that enable Congress to disapprove a final rule issued by a federal agency.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  8. Implementing a Two-for-One Regulatory Requirement in the U.S. [Download]

    Title: Implementing a Two-for-One Regulatory Requirement in the U.S.
    Author: Peacock, Marcus
    Description: President-elect Trump committed to “a requirement that for every new federal regulation, two existing regulations need to be eliminated” or what could be called a “two-for-one” requirement. The implementation of such a regulatory “pay as you go” process raises a number of issues including: what constitutes a “new regulation”; how offsets should be measured; estimating and managing additional analytic and administrative workload; enforcement; and how to increase the likelihood such a policy survives the next presidential transition. This working paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of various options for implementing a two-for-one policy, and also discusses the role of regulatory benefits estimates in such a system.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  9. Shining a Light on Regulatory Costs [Download]

    Title: Shining a Light on Regulatory Costs
    Author: Mannix, Brian F.
    Description: President Trump’s Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs, has caused some confusion among the analysts, inside and outside federal agencies, who forecast the economic effects of regulations. Which effects should count as costs and which as benefits? It sounds like it should be an easy question, but it is not. Here are some wrinkles to consider.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Cost-Analysis, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  10. Reforming the Energy Policy and Conservation Act: Learning from Experience on Energy Efficiency [Download]

    Title: Reforming the Energy Policy and Conservation Act: Learning from Experience on Energy Efficiency
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, grants the Department of Energy (DOE) broad authority to regulate the maximum energy intensiveness of everyday household appliances such as microwaves and dishwashers. As the pace of these energy efficiency regulations has increased, the effects of these standards—and the analyses on which they are based—reveal a need to revisit this statutory authority to reduce burdens for consumers.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Energy, Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017