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  1. Public Commenting on Federal Agency Regulations: Research on Current Practices and Recommendations to the Administrative Conference of the United States [Download]

    Title: Public Commenting on Federal Agency Regulations: Research on Current Practices and Recommendations to the Administrative Conference of the United States
    Author: Balla, Steven
    Description: This report, commissioned by the Administrative Conference of the United States (ACUS), investigates agency practices in soliciting, circulating, and responding to public comments during the federal rulemaking process. Specifically, the report develops recommendations regarding the following aspects of the public commenting: 1. Should there be a required, or at least recommended, minimum length for a comment period? 2. Should agencies immediately make comments publicly available? Should they permit a “reply comment” period? 3. Must agencies reply to all comments, even if they take no further action on a rule for years? Do comments eventually become sufficiently “stale” that they could not support a final rule without further comment? 4. Under what circumstances should an agency be permitted to keep comments confidential and/or anonymous? 5. What effects do comments actually have on agency rules? The report considers three sources of information as the bases for developing recommendations in these areas of public commenting.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies
    Date Uploaded: 12/14/2017
  2. Whose Benefits Are They, Anyway? Examining the Benefits of Energy Efficiency Rules 2007 - 2014 [Download]

    Title: Whose Benefits Are They, Anyway? Examining the Benefits of Energy Efficiency Rules 2007 - 2014
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to establish energy efficiency standards for consumer appliances that are both technologically feasible and economically justified, while also resulting in a “significant conservation of energy.” To justify its regulations, DOE relies almost entirely on two specific types of regulatory benefits: the cost savings consumers are estimated to enjoy over the life of a more energy efficient appliance, and international benefits associated with reducing the impacts of climate change. To explore these benefits, this paper first examines the composition of benefits from energy efficiency regulations as reported by the Department of Energy over the past 10 years. It then examines arguments for and against inclusion of these benefits in regulatory impact analysis, including whether attributing large private benefits to energy efficiency rules is consistent with standard economic assumptions of consumer sovereignty, and the appropriateness of including international benefits in domestic rulemakings.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Energy Efficiency, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/14/2017
  3. Evaluation at EPA: Determinants of the Environmental Protection Agency's Capacity to Supply Program Evaluation [Download]

    Title: Evaluation at EPA: Determinants of the Environmental Protection Agency's Capacity to Supply Program Evaluation
    Author: Hart, Nick
    Description: Since the inception of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), considerable emphasis has been placed on the use of prospective policy analysis tools that aim to inform environmental decisions, including cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment. However, compared to the prevalence of ex ante analysis at the EPA to inform decisions, relatively little evaluation of these same environmental policies is conducted after implementation, to inform future policy development or to modify existing policies. This research considered processes and determinants that affect evaluation supply at the EPA. The research relied on archival documents, semi-structured interviews, and case studies of EPA’s ambient air, hazardous waste, and performance partnership programs. Ten key factors were identified across the three case studies that constituted both barriers to and facilitators of evaluation. This research concludes that evaluation has much to offer EPA decision-makers, and efforts to improve evaluation capacity will present organizational learning opportunities that can further support the agency's evidence-building practices, specifically improving the application and use of program evaluation at EPA.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper , Environmental Policy, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/12/2017
  4. U.S. Health Care Reform: Universal Insurance or Affordable Care? [Download]

    Title: U.S. Health Care Reform: Universal Insurance or Affordable Care?
    Author: King, Don W.
    Description: The U.S. leads the world in scientific discovery and medical innovation, and recent studies suggest that for many clinical conditions, U.S. patients have outcomes superior to or equivalent to those in other industrialized countries. However, U.S health insurance and medical care are very expensive, and Americans may be spending more on health care than is necessary to achieve the highest quality. While there are undoubtedly many reasons that insurance and care are expensive, present federal and state policies appear to be important factors.
    Keywords: Regulation , Health Care, Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  5. Agricultural Statistics: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 1 [Download]

    Title: Agricultural Statistics: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 1
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center produced a five-chapter report on regulatory differences between the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU) and their effects on agricultural productivity. Those chapters are published here as a working paper series with five parts. This chapter provides an overview of key statistical comparisons between the agricultural sectors of the U.S. and the EU. Its purpose is to highlight key economic indicators, describe the role that agriculture plays in each economy, and highlight differences in each jurisdiction’s respective factor endowments and trade patterns. In addition, this chapter updates key statistics contained within the USDA Economic Research Service’s (ERS) 2004 report: U.S. – EU Food and Agricultural Comparison
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy, Agriculture
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  6. Water Pollution from Agriculture: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 4 [Download]

    Title: Water Pollution from Agriculture: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 4
    Author: Linquiti, Peter
    Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center produced a five-chapter report on regulatory differences between the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU) and their effects on agricultural production and productivity. Those chapters are published here as a working paper series with five parts. This chapter reviews how the U.S. and EU regulate water pollution from agriculture, particularly nutrient contamination from fertilizer use on crops and from the management of manure from livestock. The chapter first reviews the core environmental problem—the process by which nutrient pollution occurs and the adverse environmental and human health consequences it causes. It also provides a broad overview of the institutions and policy frameworks that shape water quality polices relevant to agriculture in the two jurisdictions and proceeds by characterizing the specific policy instruments used in the U.S. and the EU to implement these broader policy frameworks. The chapter concludes by describing the on-the-ground implementation experience and the degree to which retrospective program evaluations are performed.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy, Agriculture, Pollution
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  7. Measuring Costs and Benefits of Privacy Controls: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Estimates [Download]

    Title: Measuring Costs and Benefits of Privacy Controls: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Estimates
    Author: Cordes, Joseph J.
    Description: As more and more items of personal information become potentially available to internet providers, the government, and employers, a lively debate has emerged about the role of public policy in ensuring a proper balance between the various parties who may benefit from greater access to information, and the protection of individual rights to privacy.
    Keywords: Regulatory Policy , Regulation , Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest , Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Administrative Law
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  8. Testing the Conventional Wisdom about Land Use and Traffic Congestion: The More We Sprawl, the Less We Move?, Working Paper 13 [Download]

    Title: Testing the Conventional Wisdom about Land Use and Traffic Congestion: The More We Sprawl, the Less We Move?, Working Paper 13
    Author: SARZYNSKI, ANDREA
    Description: We explore relationships between seven dimensions of land use in 1990 and subsequent levels of three traffic congestion outcomes in 2000 for a sample of 50 large U.S. urban areas. Multiple regression models are developed to address several methodological concerns, including reverse causation and time lags. Controlling for prior levels of congestion and changes in an urban area’s transportation network and relevant demographics, we find that: housing-job proximity is inversely related to commute time; density/continuity is positively related to roadway ADT/lane and delay per capita; and housing centrality is positively related to delay per capita. Expect for proximity, the results suggest that congestion is not directly related to land use patterns as claimed by conventional wisdom.
    Keywords: Public Policy
    Date Uploaded: 09/28/2015