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  1. Ten Regulatory Process Reforms President-Elect Trump Could Undertake [Download]

    Title: Ten Regulatory Process Reforms President-Elect Trump Could Undertake
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: President-elect Trump has promised to “reform the entire regulatory code to ensure that we keep jobs and wealth in America.”To that end, scholars at the George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center offer a list of 10 reforms to regulatory processes that could be accomplished through executive action. While other potential reforms could be achieved through the courts or by working with congress, these reforms focus on actions that are within the purview of the executive branch.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Politics, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  2. Consumer’s Guide to Regulatory Impact Analysis: Ten Tips for Being an Informed Policymaker [Download]

    Title: Consumer’s Guide to Regulatory Impact Analysis: Ten Tips for Being an Informed Policymaker
    Author: Dudley, Susan
    Description: Regulatory impact analysis (RIA) weighs the benefits of regulatory proposals against the burdens they impose. Even regulatory policies that are ultimately decided on political, legal, ethical, or other grounds will benefit from the structured evaluation of tradeoffs and alternatives that a good RIA provides. Although RIAs are a core feature of regulatory practice in the United States and other countries (OECD, 2016) there is increasing concern that they are “used to justify decisions already made, rather than to inform those decisions” (Carrigan & Shapiro, 2016). RIAs often serve as legal documents, running hundreds or even thousands of pages, prepared by agencies in a defensive posture in anticipation of litigation. Observers argue that RIAs “often omit consideration of meaningful alternatives and are so detailed that they are practically indecipherable” (Carrigan & Shapiro, 2016). U.S. regulatory agencies develop RIAs before issuing significant new regulations, and non-governmental interests may also present their own analyses of how different policies will affect outcomes. Dense or complex RIAs can be challenging for policy officials and interested parties to comprehend and interpret, making it difficult to distinguish facts from conjecture and to understand the likely consequences of alternative policy choices (Ellig & Abdukadirov, 2015). While numerous technical guidelines exist to aid development of RIAs (OMB, 2003; OMB 2010; OECD, 2008), none is geared toward non-specialist policymakers and interested stakeholders who will be reading RIAs as consumers. This guide attempts to fill that gap. It first reviews the purpose of RIA, and then offers policy makers and other consumers of RIAs 10 tips for asking informed questions when reviewing and interpreting them.
    Keywords: Regulation , Consumer Rights , Economic Analysis , Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies , Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  3. The Next Regulatory Czar [Download]

    Title: The Next Regulatory Czar
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: To accomplish his promised overhaul of the U.S. regulatory system, President Trump will need the help of a small office that most people outside of Washington have never heard of. The Office of Information & Regulatory Affairs (OIRA, pronounced Oh-Eye-Ruh), established in 1980, oversees the regulatory, information collection, and statistical activities of federal executive branch agencies. Like its budget counterparts in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), it provides the president with a tool to check agencies’ natural proclivity to want more (whether it’s more budget resources or more regulatory authority). As President Trump prepares to announce his nominee to be OIRA administrator, this Regulatory Insight provides an inside look at the functions of this important office, its origins and procedures, and why some (including this author) say the job of OIRA administrator is the best job in Washington.
    Keywords: Regulation, Working Paper, Politics, Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  4. Retrospective evaluation of chemical regulations [Download]

    Title: Retrospective evaluation of chemical regulations
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: OECD countries rely on regulatory tools to manage potential risks from exposure to targeted chemicals. Ex-ante regulatory impact assessment has a long tradition in many OECD countries, with established analytical steps and oversight as well as opportunities for public engagement to hold governments accountable for conducting analysis before regulations are issued. But ex-ante analyses necessarily depend on unverifiable assumptions and models of how the world would look absent the regulation, and how responses to regulatory requirements will alter those conditions. In essence, ex-ante analyses are hypotheses of the effects of regulatory actions.
    Keywords: Regulation , Chemical risk, Regulatory studies, Evaluation, Environment, Benefit-cost analysis, Public Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  5. Shining a Light on Regulatory Costs [Download]

    Title: Shining a Light on Regulatory Costs
    Author: Mannix, Brian F.
    Description: President Trump’s Executive Order 13771, Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs, has caused some confusion among the analysts, inside and outside federal agencies, who forecast the economic effects of regulations. Which effects should count as costs and which as benefits? It sounds like it should be an easy question, but it is not. Here are some wrinkles to consider.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Cost-Analysis, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  6. Reforming the Energy Policy and Conservation Act: Learning from Experience on Energy Efficiency [Download]

    Title: Reforming the Energy Policy and Conservation Act: Learning from Experience on Energy Efficiency
    Author: Miller, Sofie E.
    Description: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, grants the Department of Energy (DOE) broad authority to regulate the maximum energy intensiveness of everyday household appliances such as microwaves and dishwashers. As the pace of these energy efficiency regulations has increased, the effects of these standards—and the analyses on which they are based—reveal a need to revisit this statutory authority to reduce burdens for consumers.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Energy, Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  7. Improving Regulatory Science: A Case Study of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards [Download]

    Title: Improving Regulatory Science: A Case Study of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: This paper explores the motivations and institutional incentives of participants involved in the development of regulation aimed at reducing health risks, with a goal of understanding and identifying solutions to what the Bipartisan Policy Center has characterized as “a tendency to frame regulatory issues as debates solely about science, regardless of the actual subject in dispute, [that] is at the root of the stalemate and acrimony all too present in the regulatory system today.” We focus our analysis with a case study of the procedures for developing National Ambient Air Quality Standards under the Clean Air Act, and attempt to identify procedural approaches that bring greater diversity (in data, expertise, experience, and accountability) into the decision process.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy, Environment, Public Health
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  8. U.S. Health Care Reform: Universal Insurance or Affordable Care? [Download]

    Title: U.S. Health Care Reform: Universal Insurance or Affordable Care?
    Author: King, Don W.
    Description: The U.S. leads the world in scientific discovery and medical innovation, and recent studies suggest that for many clinical conditions, U.S. patients have outcomes superior to or equivalent to those in other industrialized countries. However, U.S health insurance and medical care are very expensive, and Americans may be spending more on health care than is necessary to achieve the highest quality. While there are undoubtedly many reasons that insurance and care are expensive, present federal and state policies appear to be important factors.
    Keywords: Regulation , Health Care, Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  9. Agricultural Statistics: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 1 [Download]

    Title: Agricultural Statistics: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 1
    Author: Dudley, Susan E.
    Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center produced a five-chapter report on regulatory differences between the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU) and their effects on agricultural productivity. Those chapters are published here as a working paper series with five parts. This chapter provides an overview of key statistical comparisons between the agricultural sectors of the U.S. and the EU. Its purpose is to highlight key economic indicators, describe the role that agriculture plays in each economy, and highlight differences in each jurisdiction’s respective factor endowments and trade patterns. In addition, this chapter updates key statistics contained within the USDA Economic Research Service’s (ERS) 2004 report: U.S. – EU Food and Agricultural Comparison
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy , Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy, Agriculture
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017
  10. Agricultural Productivity and the Impact of Regulation: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 2 [Download]

    Title: Agricultural Productivity and the Impact of Regulation: Transatlantic Agriculture & Regulation Working Paper Series: No. 2
    Author: Prasad, Aryamala
    Description: As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center produced a five-chapter report on regulatory differences between the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU) and their effects on agricultural productivity. Those chapters are published here as a working paper series with five parts. This chapter provides focuses on the impact of agricultural policy, specifically regulation, in influencing agricultural productivity across jurisdictions. It begins by tracing agricultural growth in the EU and U.S. to illustrate their respective trends for agricultural productivity. Then, drawing from the literature, it identifies measures and methodologies used to estimate the impact of regulation on productivity. Finally, it outlines important differences regarding how regulations can affect agricultural productivity and other measures of agricultural performance such as output and production costs in the EU and the U.S.
    Keywords: Regulation , Working Paper, Economic Analysis, Public Interest, Public Policy, Regulatory Studies, Regulatory Policy , Agriculture
    Date Uploaded: 12/05/2017