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  1. Urban Politics Revisited: A Policy-centered Look at Local Political Ecologies [Download]

    Title: Urban Politics Revisited: A Policy-centered Look at Local Political Ecologies
    Author: Stone, Clarence
    Description: This paper elaborates the policy-centered research program proposed by Hacker and Pierson (2014) by exploring how policy-centered research contributes to an understanding of urban politics and how the urban subfield contributes to a policy-centered research program. Using a bi-level analysis of the drug war and local union organizing, we highlight the local consequences of national policies and show that the consequences of national initiatives vary substantially, particularly for marginalized groups.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 02/12/2016
  2. Homestead Exemptions and Credits: An Examination of an Approach for Tax Expenditure Budgeting [Download]

    Title: Homestead Exemptions and Credits: An Examination of an Approach for Tax Expenditure Budgeting
    Author: Collins, Catherine
    Description: Homestead exemption programs, incorporating exemptions and credits, are by no means the only programs state and local governments use to provide property tax relief to residents. They are, however, the only programs directed at all homeowners who claim the property as their primary residence . Unlike the other residential relief programs, homestead exemptions have no further eligibility criteria. While all states provide some sort of residential relief, as shown in Table 1, only 28 states and the District of Columbia have adopted a homestead exemption program. In each case, however, these states (and D.C.) have also adopted residential relief programs for targeted populations, such as being a senior citizen or a veteran, or having limited income.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 01/08/2016
  3. OECD Countries Local Government Fiscal Context, Working Paper 053 [Download]

    Title: OECD Countries Local Government Fiscal Context, Working Paper 053
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: Below we present a contextual overview of local government finance in the OECD countries. The overview consists of a set of tables (see below) and discussion of the role of local government in the public sector, the extent of local government autonomy in each of the countries, and the functional assignment of responsibility of the various local government systems (who does what?). The six countries that are the focus of our study are thus placed within the broader context of all OECD countries for which relevant data are available. A more complete discussion of the local government context of the six countries is then included.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  4. National Fiscal Policy and Local Government During the Economic Crisis, Working Paper 052 [Download]

    Title: National Fiscal Policy and Local Government During the Economic Crisis, Working Paper 052
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: Funded by the German Marshall Fund of the United States, this report examines how national government policy, and particularly national grant systems, affected local governments during the “Great Recession” and its aftermath, which in many countries consisted of a period of fiscal consolidation designed to cope with a debt/deficit crisis. We term these two events occurring over a four year period from late 2007 through 2011 “the economic crisis.” Our particular concerns are national government policy towards local governments and whether local government fiscal responses were counter- or pro-cyclical during the period of slow or negative economic growth. In other words, did national government policy promote additional local government spending during the recession (a counter-cyclical policy), or did it encourage reduced subnational government spending (a pro-cyclical policy)? We also examine whether local government fiscal policy was consistent with stated national government policy, and whether and how the imposition of fiscal austerity policy and fiscal consolidation programs at the national level affected local government spending.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  5. Undocumented College Students in the United States: In-State Tuition Not Enough to Ensure Four-Year Degree Completion, Working Paper 050 [Download]

    Title: Undocumented College Students in the United States: In-State Tuition Not Enough to Ensure Four-Year Degree Completion, Working Paper 050
    Author: Conger, Dylan
    Description: This brief review the literature on undocumented college students in the U.S. and provides a comparison of the performance of undocumented students to that of U.S. citizens and other legal migrants using restricted-access data from one of the largest urban public university systems in the U.S. where many undocumented students are eligible for in-state tuition. Overall, undocumented students perform well in the short-term, earning higher grades and highers rates of course and associate degree completion than their U.S. citizen counterparts. But undocumented students are less likely to earn their bachelor's degrees within four years. This finding suggests that, despite their earlier college successes and their access to in-state tuition rates, at some point after enrollment, undocumented students experience higher costs to completing their bachelor's degrees than they had anticipated upon enrollment. We offer a number of policy considerations for university officials and policymakers who aim to help undocumented college students succeed in postsecondary institutions.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  6. Explaining the Economic Competitiveness of the District of Columbia, Working Paper 051 [Download]

    Title: Explaining the Economic Competitiveness of the District of Columbia, Working Paper 051
    Author: Young, Garry
    Description: In this report we assess the determinants of city job growth over time. Our focus is on the determinants of job growth in the District of Columbia, and, as a result of our analysis, we project the likely change in job growth in the District over time under various scenarios. The District of Columbia anchors one of the nation’s most dynamic regional economies. From 1990 to 2008 the Washington metropolitan area grew by 27% to over 5.3 million people. In contrast to its surrounding region, the District’s population declined by about 3% from 1990 to 2008, employment grew only slightly from 1990 to 2008, and most of the people holding those jobs reside elsewhere in the region. This same sort of central city/regional difference largely resembles many metropolitan areas across the nation. Central city job loss or slow growth relative to suburban areas is not new as nationally suburbs generally increase jobs at a faster rate than their central cities. Our purpose in this report is to understand the factors that affect the District’s economic competitiveness. Specifically we focus on understanding what affects the location of jobs in the city. Using a statistical model that includes the District and twenty‐two other central cities from 1989 to 2008, we examine the impact of city‐specific factors on city employment while also controlling for the effects of regional economic performance.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  7. Economic Development Policy Making Networks in the Cleveland and Detroit Regions, Working Paper 049 [Download]

    Title: Economic Development Policy Making Networks in the Cleveland and Detroit Regions, Working Paper 049
    Author: Ficenec, Sarah
    Description: Both the Cleveland and Detroit regions have faced the decline of their manufacturing sectors. While neither has undergone a successful transformation, the Cleveland region has, by most accounts, been more active over a longer period of time in putting in place institutions, strategies, and policies to bring about regional economic development than has the Detroit region. This difference is often attributed to the presence of networks and partnerships among various public and, especially, private actors in the Cleveland region, while Detroit’s continued struggles have been attributed to, in part, the lack of an effective network for collaboration. While cooperation and networks have both been shown to contribute to policy making, there have been few investigations into the composition and characteristics of networks for regional economic development, especially within the Rust Belt. This paper advances that literature by comparing the reputational networks among influential economic development policy makers in the Detroit and Cleveland regions. Individuals were surveyed with regard to their participation in the regional economic development policy making network, and a formal network analysis was conducted. The properties of the resulting two networks offer evidence that the two regional economic development policy making networks differ – while both networks have approximately the same level of connectedness, different types of actors hold power and importance in the two regions, which may have consequences for the types of economic development policies pursued.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  8. Activation and Reform in the United States: What Time Has Told, Working Paper 048 [Download]

    Title: Activation and Reform in the United States: What Time Has Told, Working Paper 048
    Author: Anderson, Theresa
    Description: The 1990s produced sweeping changes in basic income support in the United States. The showpiece of the transformation was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). PRWORA ended the prevailing structure of public assistance — Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) — as it had evolved since the 1930s, and replaced it with something that was claimed to "end welfare as we know it". States began implementing the new programme, called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), in October 1996, completing the transition in 1998. A central feature of PRWORA-related reforms was an increase in activation requirements associated with social assistance receipt. While few states required that recipients work for benefits, most began requiring effort at finding work or participating in work-related activity as a condition for both initial qualification for assistance and continued eligibility. Thus, the new welfare was in a sense workfare, the "Job You Can‘t Refuse" (Lødemel and Trickey 2001).
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  9. Regional Systems and Regional Economic Growth: A Systems Approach to Understanding Regional Economy, Working Paper 046 [Download]

    Title: Regional Systems and Regional Economic Growth: A Systems Approach to Understanding Regional Economy, Working Paper 046
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: Our goal in this working paper is to gain a better understanding of how various regional systems interact to bring about metropolitan economic growth. Our focus is thus on the systems that interact to produce regional economic outcomes – namely output, jobs, and income – in other words, economic growth. Below we set forth and describe these various systems – the production system, the land, labor, and housing markets, the transportation system, and the political system – and how they interact. We examine system inputs, outputs, and decision-making processes. We also identify possible problems in each of these systems that reduce the ability of the region to attain higher levels of economic growth and prosperity.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  10. Government, Governance, and Regional Economic Growth, Working Paper 044 [Download]

    Title: Government, Governance, and Regional Economic Growth, Working Paper 044
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: In this chapter we examine how government and governance within metropolitan regions affect regional economies and regional economic growth. We focus on the organization of government and governance within metropolitan regions, on the taxing and spending activities of governments within a region, and on the culture of governmental institutions.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015