The Second Gulf War was doomed to fail even before it began: so argues
Michael MacDonald in his new book, Overreach: Delusions of Regime
Change in Iraq. To begin with, the war derived its impetus from faulty
intelligence. Compounding this original error, the administration based the
Considered a political party by Lebanon and the broader Middle East, and
a terrorist group by the West and Israel, Hizbullah (also known as “The
Party of God”) makes headlines worldwide and has been studied
thoroughly by scholars of many traditions. The Hizbullah Phenomenon:
This paper describes the increasing complexity of Internet
governance and recommends policy proposals for addressing
related issues in the near term. The Internet began with networked
mainframe computers at research universities in the United States,
and grew to cover billions of users and...
A close U.S. ally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has informal links
to terrorism, and many young Saudis have traveled abroad to take
part in Islamic militancy across the Middle East. This paper
examines how religious institutions, rather than religious beliefs,
influence social norms, and...
Youth and technology have frequently been cited as factors that
contributed to the so-called “Arab Spring” uprisings in the Middle
East and North Africa. Although few of the uprisings have led to
significant positive change, they have nevertheless been disruptive.
It is therefore worthwhile...
Cyber-attacks are no longer the stuff of science fiction. Now that
cyberweapons have the capability to go kinetic, much of the
difficult legal analysis relating to cyber warfare begins to clear: the
physical effects of Stuxnet allow legal scholars to elucidate the
evidentiary problem inherent...
Michael Shifter is president of the Inter-American Dialogue. Since 1993
he has been an adjunct professor of Latin American politics at
Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. Shifter writes and
comments widely on U.S.-Latin American relations and hemispheric
affairs, and has...
According to scholar Michael Mandelbaum, the 25-year period between the end of the Cold War and 2014 was one of the most peaceful in history. Aside from smaller regional conflicts, the world saw a brief pause in global conflict between superpowers. Mandelbaum credits benevolent U.S. hegemony, the...
The United States has utilized the space domain to enhance national security and to improve national prestige. However, a growing number of governmental and commercial participants in the space domain are creating complications and increasing risks such as collisions with space objects or debris....
This article highlights the actions and goals of two major actors in Yemen: Iran and the United Arab Emirates. Framed within the context of the Yemeni Civil War, both states have used the fog of war to further their own regional and global interests. Moreover, some of their interests— and the...
For decades, Colombia has remained the strongest and most consistent military ally of the United States in Latin America. As the threat emanating from Colombia transformed from a communist red tide to a criminalized white powder, Colombia’s geographical advantages and internal conflict positioned...
In Latin America, Russia has allied with authoritarian regimes and expanded its influence to counter the United States – a strategy that is evident in Venezuela. While policymakers have focused on China’s economic expansion in Venezuela, Russia’s use of energy diplomacy in Venezuela has garnered...
The International Affairs Review is a non-profit, peer-reviewed, academic
journal published biannually in Washington, DC. It is an independent,
graduate student run publication sponsored by the Elliott School of
International Affairs at the George Washington University.
This paper examines the role of Myanmar’s military junta, the Tatmadaw, in the expansive
transnational organized crime network of the country. These criminal activities facilitated
by the Tatmadaw contribute to the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Myanmar. Illicit finance
fuels the hostile power...
Unlike many debates in Washington, there is wide ideological and political diversity among
the supporters of either side of the U.S. grand strategy debate. The two main schools, “deep
engagement” and “offshore balancing,” take opposing views as to the direction of future U.S.
Despite feminists’ progress in advocating for the legitimization of women’s security in the
international relations sphere, institutional impediments reveal that masculine structures
continue to regulate a patriarchal status quo in discourse, policy, and law. Inconsistency in
The abundance of oil in Nigeria makes the Nigerian energy sector highly attractive to foreign
investors. Most of the country’s oil production takes place in the Niger Delta, yet paradoxically,
the Niger Delta is the poorest and most underdeveloped region in the country. More than 95
While Iraq has achieved success in militarily defeating ISIS, it must now prepare for the difficult
post-conflict reconstruction phase. The most important issue facing the country in the post-
ISIS landscape is the challenge posed by sectarianism and identity politics, which helped ISIS
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Latin America’s oldest insurgency,
is at a critical juncture. Following a historic peace agreement in 2016 that required the
organization to demobilize, the country and the world are closely watching the degree
to which former fighters abandon...
This paper explores a new model—the terrorist criminal enterprise—for assessing the
convergence of terrorism and organized crime in illicit networks, and examines some of the
policy implications of utilizing that model to address this phenomenon. Since 2001, several
other models have...