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  1. Thin the Soup or Shorten the Line: Washington Area Nonprofits Adapt to Uncertain Times, Working Paper 006 [Download]

    Title: Thin the Soup or Shorten the Line: Washington Area Nonprofits Adapt to Uncertain Times, Working Paper 006
    Author: Atkins, Patricia
    Description: Human services nonprofit organizations are crucial partners to government and the private sector in developing and maintaining healthy communities and families. They are able to leverage multiple funding streams to create a greater capacity to deliver services than any single funding source could achieve on its own. Because they often have strong relationships with the people and neighborhoods where they work, nonprofits are well-positioned to meet community needs. However, in the current economic climate, Washington-area human services nonprofits are being squeezed by rising demand, escalating costs, and increasing administrative tasks, all accompanied by only sluggish revenue growth. An analysis using survey results, tax documents, interviews, and local government budget data finds that these organizations have coped with fiscal stress in a variety of ways—many of which could lead to significant erosion in the quality and quantity of services provided to the community. There are models, though, to bolster nonprofits which should be considered by regional philanthropic organizations and government alike. But overall, the public and private sectors need to work with the nonprofit sector to jointly develop solutions that will meet the needs of community residents without overly burdening the resources of any one sector.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 09/28/2015
  2. Profiles of U.S. Education and Workforce Data Sources [Download]

    Title: Profiles of U.S. Education and Workforce Data Sources
    Author: Reamer, Andrew
    Description:
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 12/10/2015
  3. Capital Cities and their National Governments: Washington, DC in Comparative Retrospective, Working Paper 030 [Download]

    Title: Capital Cities and their National Governments: Washington, DC in Comparative Retrospective, Working Paper 030
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: Along numerous dimensions Washington, D.C. differs substantially from the rest of the United States. It is a city that lacks the support and resources of a state. It performs many of the same functions as a state while lacking most of the rights, powers, and privileges guaranteed to states under the U.S. Constitution. The District of Columbia lacks full representation in the U.S. Congress, has limited autonomy over its own governance and fiscal policy, while carrying numerous burdens associated with hosting the national capital. While unique in the American context, how unique is the District in the international context? All nations have capitals. In what ways do the circumstances of capitals in other nations resemble or differ from the District’s? In what ways are capital cities treated differently from other cities in the respective nation?
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  4. Evidence of Community: Writing from The Jenny McKean Moore Workshops at George Washington University, GW Washington Studies No. 11 [Download]

    Title: Evidence of Community: Writing from The Jenny McKean Moore Workshops at George Washington University, GW Washington Studies No. 11
    Author: McAleavey, David
    Description: This anthology represents, in a highly selective way, that enormous interest in the writing of literature. Here are both fiction and poetry; the work of urbanites, sub-urbanites, and country dwellers; the work of blacks and whites, of young writers and retirees, of "amateurs" and "professionals", of a city manager and a former nurse.
    Keywords: Monograph
    Date Uploaded: 10/23/2015
  5. The First Women Washington Correspondents, GW Washington Studies No. 4 [Download]

    Title: The First Women Washington Correspondents, GW Washington Studies No. 4
    Author: Beasley, Maurine Hoffman
    Description: This is the fourth in a series of monographs on the city of Washington written by members of the George Washington University. The focus throughout the series will be on Washington as a major urban center rather than as the federal capital. The series will present extended, specialized studies of selected aspects of the city contributed by representatives of various academic disciplines. Publication of these monographs is made possible in part by a grant from the Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation.
    Keywords: Monograph
    Date Uploaded: 10/23/2015
  6. Policy Transfer: What We Know About What Transfers, How It Happens, and How to Do It, Working Paper 038 [Download]

    Title: Policy Transfer: What We Know About What Transfers, How It Happens, and How to Do It, Working Paper 038
    Author: Wolman, Hal
    Description: Policy transfer is the spread of a policy – or some aspect of a policy – across units of government that occurs as a result of the adopting unit having at least some knowledge of the existence of the policy in other units. It is a subset of the broader term “policy diffusion,” which is the spread of policy across units regardless of whether that spread results from knowledge or from other factors such as convergence – a unit adopting a policy similar to other units because it is responding to similar conditions/problems, even if it is unaware of the existence of the policy elsewhere. Policy transfer thus requires “policy learning.” In this paper I will focus on what we know from the research literature about how policies transfer, what kinds of policies transfer, how policy learning that results in policy transfer takes place and what is known prescriptively about how governments should engage in the process of policy transfer (lesson-drawing).
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  7. Economic Development Policy Making Networks in the Cleveland and Detroit Regions, Working Paper 049 [Download]

    Title: Economic Development Policy Making Networks in the Cleveland and Detroit Regions, Working Paper 049
    Author: Ficenec, Sarah
    Description: Both the Cleveland and Detroit regions have faced the decline of their manufacturing sectors. While neither has undergone a successful transformation, the Cleveland region has, by most accounts, been more active over a longer period of time in putting in place institutions, strategies, and policies to bring about regional economic development than has the Detroit region. This difference is often attributed to the presence of networks and partnerships among various public and, especially, private actors in the Cleveland region, while Detroit’s continued struggles have been attributed to, in part, the lack of an effective network for collaboration. While cooperation and networks have both been shown to contribute to policy making, there have been few investigations into the composition and characteristics of networks for regional economic development, especially within the Rust Belt. This paper advances that literature by comparing the reputational networks among influential economic development policy makers in the Detroit and Cleveland regions. Individuals were surveyed with regard to their participation in the regional economic development policy making network, and a formal network analysis was conducted. The properties of the resulting two networks offer evidence that the two regional economic development policy making networks differ – while both networks have approximately the same level of connectedness, different types of actors hold power and importance in the two regions, which may have consequences for the types of economic development policies pursued.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015
  8. STATE POLICY EFFECTS ON URBAN PERFORMANCE, Working Paper 016 [Download]

    Title: STATE POLICY EFFECTS ON URBAN PERFORMANCE, Working Paper 016
    Author: Furdell, Kimberly
    Description: Cities are creatures of their state governments. As such, state policy can have important effects, intended or otherwise, on the well-being of cities and their residents. States affect cities in a variety of ways, and the importance to local governments of the state government role has long been recognized. States determine the institutional forms of their local governments, the land use and regulatory frameworks under which they operate, and the revenue systems they may use. Cities and their residents are directly affected by state tax policies and by state programs and policies. While some states have explicit “urban policies” directed at promoting the wellbeing of their cities, in every state cities are affected, adversely or beneficially, by a range of state activities not necessarily devised with cities and their residents in mind. This paper describes the initial stages in a research project that attempts to tease out how state policy effects the performance of cities. We first use factor analysis to explore the performance of central cities between 1990 and 2000 by measuring changes in a set of measures meant to broadly capture the economic and social well-being of city residents. We then employ linear regression to predict cities’ factor scores using a set of non-policy variables that describe the demographic characteristics and economic structures of the cities. By explaining performance using non-policy variables in this way, we attempt to isolate the potential impact of policy on performance, which should be captured in the unexplained variation in the cities’ factor scores. In the final part of our statistical analysis, we estimate how much of the unexplained variation can be attributed to state-level factors by using state fixed-effects models to predict the residuals from the previous stage regressions. The next stage in our research will be to use the state-fixed effects models as guides in choosing states for case study research. We will conduct a series of intensive case studies in both well- and poorly-performing states in order to determine how and why state-level policy affects the well-being of cities within those states.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 09/28/2015
  9. Urban Politics Revisited: A Policy-centered Look at Local Political Ecologies [Download]

    Title: Urban Politics Revisited: A Policy-centered Look at Local Political Ecologies
    Author: Stone, Clarence
    Description: This paper elaborates the policy-centered research program proposed by Hacker and Pierson (2014) by exploring how policy-centered research contributes to an understanding of urban politics and how the urban subfield contributes to a policy-centered research program. Using a bi-level analysis of the drug war and local union organizing, we highlight the local consequences of national policies and show that the consequences of national initiatives vary substantially, particularly for marginalized groups.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 02/12/2016
  10. The Property Tax: Its Role and Significance in Funding State and Local Government Services, Working Paper 027 [Download]

    Title: The Property Tax: Its Role and Significance in Funding State and Local Government Services, Working Paper 027
    Author: Brunori, David
    Description: This report, produced by the George Washington Institute of Public Policy, focuses on the incidence of the property tax and its significance in funding state and local government services. The purpose of the study is to help policy makers, researchers, and others interested in local government finance to better understanding the role of the property tax. An overview of the historical and current role of the property tax as an important source of revenue, including a discussion of trends, demonstrates how entrenched the property tax is, and explains the circumstances and conditions that contribute to the current property tax environment. The second section of the report outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the property tax today, while the subsequent section addresses the prevailing views and current debates among public finance analysts. The final section describes the variation in use of the property tax, and how the political process gave rise to much of that variation.
    Keywords: Public policy
    Date Uploaded: 10/16/2015