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  1. Does Higher Education Impact the Regional Unemployment Rate in Spain? [Download]

    Title: Does Higher Education Impact the Regional Unemployment Rate in Spain?
    Author: Adelman, Madeline
    Description: This paper examines seventeen Spanish regions from 2001 to 2011 and how the differences in male versus female educational attainment explains Spain's regional unemployment rate. Using a panel regression, results indicate there is a lower unemployment rate across northern regions compared to southern regions in Spain. The results further provide evidence that women who complete tertiary education have a larger impact on regional unemployment rates than men. Overall this study concludes both men and women who complete tertiary education positively increase the regional unemployment rate. Lastly, this paper looks at the effects of the 2008 financial crisis which conclusively increased regional unemployment rates in Spain. Through the positive effects of men and women who complete tertiary education and the 2008 financial crisis, this study concludes that the labor market in Spain may be saturated. A growing labor force illustrates the availability of jobs for educated laborers may be low.
    Keywords: Research Days 2017, Education, Spain, Unemployment, Gender
    Date Uploaded: 04/26/2017
  2. Human Capital Convergence: International Evidence [Download]

    Title: Human Capital Convergence: International Evidence
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: In the growth literature, evidence on income convergence is mixed. Inthe development literature, health and education indicators are also often used. This study examines whether health and education levels are converging across countries and calculates their convergence speed, using data from 100 countries during 1970-96. A 3SLS procedure is used in a joint analysis of human capital convergence. The results confirm that investments in education and health are closely linked. We find unconditional convergence for life expectancy and infant survival, and enrollment rates, on average and by gender; and conditional convergence for all human capital indicators, including class size.
    Keywords: human capital, convergence, education, health, growth
    Date Uploaded: 01/14/2016
  3. Does Employment Matter to the Labor Managed Firm? Some Theory and an Empirical Illustration [Download]

    Title: Does Employment Matter to the Labor Managed Firm? Some Theory and an Empirical Illustration
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description:
    Keywords:
    Date Uploaded: 01/14/2016
  4. Blooming Together or Wilting Alone? Organizational Comparative Advantage, Network Externalities, and Mondragon and La Lega Cooperative Networks [Download]

    Title: Blooming Together or Wilting Alone? Organizational Comparative Advantage, Network Externalities, and Mondragon and La Lega Cooperative Networks
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: This paper examines strategies developed by Mondragón Co-operative Corporation in the Basque Region of Spain, and La Lega co-operative network in Italy, to mitigate disadvantages of the typical co-operative organizational structure and market position but without losing its critical advantages and attractive features. A detailed institutional overview of these most prominent examples of successful co-operative clusters is presented. The paper argues that there are network externalities in co-op formation and survival, that imply that even if other barriers to entry are overcome and a co-op is established it may not survive, not because of intrinsic inefficiencies, but simply because of the lack of other co-operative entry, and to some extent also because of a lack of coordination among co-ops that do enter the market.
    Keywords: Mondragón, La Lega, Co-operative network, Co-operatives, Employee ownership, Labour managed firm, Italy, Spain, Developing countries, Economic development, Transition
    Date Uploaded: 01/14/2016
  5. Review of The Competitive Advantage of Nations: Michael Porter [Download]

    Title: Review of The Competitive Advantage of Nations: Michael Porter
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage of Nations, though it is written from the perspective of the business school rather than the economics department, and is primarily focused on understanding the distribution of leading positions in industries held by the advanced economies, is potentially an extraordinarily important book for the development field. It is the first serious attempt to develop a really original grand theory of national economic development processes since the early years of Postwar development economics, and represents one of the most original ways of thinking about development policy in years.
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    Date Uploaded: 01/14/2016
  6. The Scope of NGOs and Development Program Design:   Application to Problems of Multidimensional Poverty [Download]

    Title: The Scope of NGOs and Development Program Design:   Application to Problems of Multidimensional Poverty
    Author: Smith Stephen
    Description: This study addresses basic questions concerning the scope and structure of organizations working in development and poverty activities. Under what conditions is work on many or few poverty problems by a single organization warranted? Moreover, for a given organizational scope, how many issues and in what combination are best combined in a specific program? How are these choices related? How does “inheriting” an organizational structure that is difficult (very costly) to change influence choices concerning program type? The application of the economics of organization yields useful insights into NGO structure and activities, revealing opposing forces that may lead nongovernmental organizations to diversify either excessively, or inadequately. NGOs working in the poverty field are a natural focus for this research, because poverty is a multidimensional problem with potential (or contingent) complementarities across dimensions. Perspectives on activity choices such as child sponsorship and microfinance emerge from this broader context.
    Keywords: Poverty, microfinance, economics of organization,, Development, Organizational Comparative Advantage, NGOs, economies of scope, integration, specialization
    Date Uploaded: 01/13/2016
  7. Education and Freedom of Choice: Evidence from Arranged Marriages in Vietnam [Download]

    Title: Education and Freedom of Choice: Evidence from Arranged Marriages in Vietnam
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: Using household data from Vietnam, we provide evidence on the effects of education on freedom of spouse choice. We use war disruptions and spatial indicators of schooling supply as instruments. The point estimates indicate that a year of additional schooling reduces the probability of an arranged marriage by about 14 percentage points for an individual with eight years of schooling. We also estimate bounds on the effect of education on arranged marriage when exclusion restrictions are violated locally (the lower bound is six to seven percentage points). The impact of education is strong for women, but significantly weaker for men.
    Keywords: Arranged marriage, Education, Schooling, Freedom of choice, Development, Vietnam, Red River delta, Labour markets, Social interactions
    Date Uploaded: 01/13/2016
  8. Assessing the Frontiers of Ultrapoverty Reduction: Evidence from Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction/Targeting the Ultra-poor, an Innovative Program in Bangladesh [Download]

    Title: Assessing the Frontiers of Ultrapoverty Reduction: Evidence from Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction/Targeting the Ultra-poor, an Innovative Program in Bangladesh
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description:
    Keywords:
    Date Uploaded: 01/13/2016
  9. Do Foreign Owners Favor Short-Term Profit? Evidence from Germany [Download]

    Title: Do Foreign Owners Favor Short-Term Profit? Evidence from Germany
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: Comparing domestic- and foreign-owned firms in Germany, this paper finds that foreignowned firms are more likely to focus on short-term profit. This influence is particularly strong if the local managers of the German subsidiary are not sent from the foreign parent company. Moreover, the physical distance between the foreign parent company and its German subsidiary increases the probability of focusing on short-term profit. These findings conform to the hypothesis that foreign owners facing an information disadvantage concerning the local conditions of their subsidiaries are more likely to favor short-term profit. However, we do not identify differences in “short-termism” between investors from “Anglo-Saxon” and other foreign countries; rather, results point in the direction of more general features of corporate globalization.
    Keywords: foreign ownership, multinational enterprises, short-termism, asymmetric information, globalization, stakeholders
    Date Uploaded: 01/13/2016
  10. Adaptation to Climate Change in Low‐Income Countries:  Lessons from Current Research and Needs from Future Research [Download]

    Title: Adaptation to Climate Change in Low‐Income Countries:  Lessons from Current Research and Needs from Future Research
    Author: Smith, Stephen
    Description: This paper constitutes the introductory essay for the special issue of Climate Change Economics, edited by Malik and Smith, forthcoming in 2012, examining adaptation to climate change in low-income countries. The paper first characterizes different types of adaptations from an economic perspective. It then puts in context the contributions of two articles that address the problem of making adaptation decisions in the face of uncertainty with an emphasis on developing country circumstances. The paper then proceeds to examines data and methodological problems faced in empirical research on adaptation, and, as part of a broader review, examines contributions of two articles that present econometric evidence on adaptation in Ethiopia and India. The paper then introduces issues in the emerging research area of interactions between autonomous and planned adaptations and discusses contributions in the CCE special issue, particularly on how government agricultural extension affects farm household adaptation and how a government ‘awareness’ campaign encouraging behavioral responses to heat waves can reduce mortality. Finally, the paper identifies important questions on adaptation in lowincome countries that still remain largely unaddressed
    Keywords: Adaptation to climate change , Low-income countries, Developing countries
    Date Uploaded: 01/13/2016